what is the energy relationship between ATP, ADP, and AMP? | Yahoo Answers
ATP (Adenosine tri-phosphate) is an important molecule found in all living things. ATP ß à ADP + P + energy ß à AMP + P + energy. ADP AMP. ß à. ADP AMP. ATP is often used for energy transfer in the cell. ATP synthase produces ATP from ADP or AMP + Pi. ATP has many uses. It is used as a. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the main energy carrier molecule used living things. The difference between ATP and ADP, or adenosine diphosphate, is found in the number of phosphate groups, 3 for ATP and 2 for ADP. Then it becomes ADP, ADP regains the phosphate through cellular.
They have 70S rather than 80s ribosomes. They are susceptible to some anti-bacterial drugs.
Mitochondrial ATP synthesis is almost identical to the bacterial system. This suggests that mitochondria are descended from captured bacteria that were enslaved by our eukaryotic ancestors — the endosymbiont hypothesis.
The genetic code used by mitochondria is very slightly different to the nuclear version. The mitochondrial chromosome is very small, but there are hundreds of copies in a typical cell. Mitochondrial DNA is subject to maternal inheritance. Nucleic acid processing is less reliable in mitochondria and it is a mystery how these copies are normally kept in synchrony. Mitochondrial mutations cause serious diseases.
ATP AND BIOLOGICAL ENERGY
Maternal inheritance arises because the sperm is so much smaller than the egg, so on fertilisation any mitochondria contributed by the sperm are completely swamped by the thousands of copies in the egg. It is claimed that all the mitochondria in modern humans derive from an African lady "mitochondrial Eve" who lived aboutyears ago. The full story may be more complicated than this. Mitochondrial DNA mutations may affect only part of the body, a condition known as "heteroplasmy".
One possible explanation is that the mutation occured during cleavage of the embryo, with the result that only part of the body, or a restricted group of tissues received the mutated stock. Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesised on cytosolic ribosomes, and laboriously imported across the outer and the inner mitochondrial membranes. Other eukaryotic organelles may have been acquired in a similar fashion, from other free-living precursors that joined the eukaryotic federation.
Importing most mitochondrial proteins from the cytosol is a lot of trouble for our cells. Proteins must be correctly targetted for the matrix space, inner membrane, inter-membrane space or outer membrane. Protein import is expensive energetically, but it is nevertheless worthwhile because of the better opportunities for regulation that exist in the nuclear genome.
The only protein coding genes remaining on the mitochondrial chromosome specify sticky hydrophobic proteins at the core of the mitochondrial inner membrane. These integral membrane proteins spontaneously insert into the first phospholipid bilayer they encounter, so the only safe place to express them is in the interior of the mitochondrial matrix space, where there is limited opportunity to get it wrong.ATP: Adenosine triphosphate - Energy and enzymes - Biology - Khan Academy
In humans, the mitochondrial chromosome has only 13 protein-coding genes which specify a few of the core subunits from respiratory complexes I, III and IV, and part of ATP synthase. The mitochondrial organisation is destroyed in the membrane permeability transition, which is a key event during apoptosis, or programmed cell death. Various membrane components are reorganised to form a large pore which permits the escape of cytochrome c. This is a key signaling event in the apoptotic cascade, which is used to destroy tumour cells and invading viruses, and to reshape the body during embryogenesis and growth.
Apoptosis Apoptosis or programmed cell death is an ancient strategy for killing defective or unwanted cells which is probably present in all multicellular organisms, both animals and plants. It is employed extensively within the immune system to select the most useful clones.
Apoptosis also plays a major role in embryologypathology and in cancer chemotherapy. These references are included for general interest, to illustrate the current direction of research activity.
You don't need all this detail for ICU3! Apotosis is a major anti-cancer and anti-viral mechanism in humans, and it is also involved in growth and differentiation, heart attacks and stroke. There are at least four independent trigger mechanisms: Lytic granule release by cytotoxic cells, e.
Mitchell would later win the Nobel Prize for his work. A typical representation of an electron transport chain. This is shown in Figure 4 and 5. The energy for the pumping comes from the coupled oxidation - reduction reactions in the electron transport chain. Electrons are passed from one membrane-bound enzyme to another, losing some energy with each tansfer as per the second law of thermodynamics.
» How much energy is released in ATP hydrolysis?
This "lost" energy allows for the pumping of hydrogen ions against the concentration gradient there are fewer hydrogen ions outside the confined space than there are inside the confined space. The confined hydrogens cannot pass back through the membrane.
- What is the energy relationship between ATP, ADP, and AMP?
Their only exit is through the ATP synthesizing enzyme that is located in the confining membrane. A generalized view of an electron transport system.
Usually the terminal phosphate is not simply removed, but instead is attached to another molecule. This process is known as phosphorylation. ATP serves as the biological energy company, releasing energy for both anabolic and catabolic processes and being recharged by energy generated from other catabolic reactions.
Learning Objectives Back to Top Describe the components, organization, and functions of an electron transport system. ATP is composed of ribose, a five-carbon sugar, three phosphate groups, and adeninea nitrogen-containing compound also known as a nitrogenous base. What class of organic macromolecules is composed of monomers similar to ATP? ATP directly or indirectly delivers energy to almost all metabolic pathways.