William Masters - Wikipedia
In William Masters, a gynaecologist at the Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, engaged Virginia Johnson to assist him. There have obviously been some liberties taken, but Masters of Sex seems to capture the spirit of Masters and Johnson's relationship, as well. By OBOS Sexuality & Relationships Contributors | October 15, ? In the s, William Masters and Virginia Johnson observed and measured women.
Prior towhen they described their treatment program to the world for the first time, sexual dysfunctions such as premature ejaculationimpotencevaginismusand female frigidity had been generally treated by long-term multi-year psychotherapy or psychoanalysis with very low rates of success.
This was strictly a talking therapy — couples in their sex therapy program were never observed in sexual activity. Treatment of homosexual behavior[ edit ] See also: Conversion therapy From tothe Masters and Johnson Institute ran a program to convert homosexuals to heterosexuality.
This program reported a Thomas Maier stated "that Virginia Johnson had serious reservations about Masters' conversion theory, and she suspected that, at worst, the results of the study may have been fabricated by William Masters".
How William Masters And Virginia Johnson Changed The Science Of Sex
Kolodny also expressed reservations about the veracity of the findings in Masters's book on the topic and alleged that Masters had not kept files of the case studies cited in the book. Hite's work, however, has been challenged for methodological defects.
First, Paul Robinson argues that because many of their participants were sex workers, it is highly likely that these individuals have had more sexual experience and are more comfortable with sex and sexuality in general. Other researchers have argued that Masters and Johnson eliminated same-sex attracted participants when studying the human sexual response cycle, which also limits the generalizability of their results.
Virginia Johnson obituary
While they attempted to make participants as comfortable as possible in the lab by giving them a "practice session" before their behavior was recorded, critics have argued that two people engaging in sexual activity in a lab is a different experience compared to being in the privacy and comfort of one's home.
Masters and Johnson were also referenced in a Italian comedy directed by Bruno Corbucci, Il trafficone.
Although at 16 Virginia enrolled at Drury College now University in Springfield, she left to work in the state insurance office for four years. A passion for music took her back to education — at the University of Missouri and the Kansas City Conservatory of Music — and she sang with a band during the second world war.
By her early 20s, she had married and divorced twice, and moved to St Louis. After her third marriage, to George Johnson, a bandleader, ended in divorce, she decided she no longer wanted to pursue a singing career, and enrolled at Washington State, where she met Masters.
She had been a business writer for the St Louis Daily Record, and her secretarial and writing skills were perhaps what attracted him, but he got much more.
- William Masters
- Masters and Johnson
Masters had secured funding and permission to study human sexuality and had been observing prostitutes in local brothels — hardly representative of the average, as one of the workers apparently pointed out. He decided he needed a female research partner to be able to reassure and thus attract volunteers to allow him to assess their physical reactions while they had sex or masturbated.
Over a decade, Masters and Johnson studied women and men aged between 18 and 89, wiring them up and filming them to measure a range of reactions.Masters Of Sex – The Complete Second Season Now on Blu-ray & Digital HD!
Written in deliberately dry and scientific language to allay accusations of being smutty, their first book, Human Sexual Responsewas nevertheless a sensation. Among other things, their research laid to rest Sigmund Freud 's idea that female orgasm was either clitoral according to Freud, immature and thus bad or vaginal mature, given by men and thus good. The polygraph-like instruments Masters and Johnson designed and created showed that female orgasm, whether stimulated directly or indirectly, was clitoral.
They identified the four stages of sexual response — excitement, plateau, orgasmic and resolution — and showed that these occurred in both sexes. They demonstrated that the size of the male member is not linked to performance; that women can be multi-orgasmic; and that there is no time limit on sexual desire, as sex among elderly people is common and normal.
Johnson's approachable manner and accessible language meant that she and Masters were in great demand to appear on chatshows and featured in magazines, including on the front cover of Time. Their book became a bestseller and words such as clitoris, orgasm and masturbation were suddenly out in the public domain.
How William Masters and Virginia Johnson Became ‘Masters Of Sex’
Using what they had learned about the sexual response cycle, Masters and Johnson began offering therapy designed to help couples affected by sexual dysfunction. Instead of long-term psychoanalytical therapy, their suggestion was a short, focused course to help people recognise their own triggers, blocks and preferences. This became known as sensate focus: As Masters was to say: