Microtubule nucleation at the cis-side of the Golgi apparatus requires AKAP and GM .. Myosin V and the endoplasmic reticulum: the connection grows. Role of the Golgi Apparatus in the Blood-Brain Barrier: Golgi Protection May Be a Targeted Therapy for Neurological Diseases. are transported after being processed in the endoplasmic reticulum. In this review, we summarized the current literature on the potential relationship between the Golgi and. The Golgi body (or Golgi complex, apparatus), and Endoplasmic Endoplasmic reticulum is a continuous membrane, which is present in both plant cells, animal cells and absent in prokaryotic. Relationship with Lysosomes . patient and physician/doctor and the medical advice they may provide.
And we know that cells communicate in all sorts of different ways and they produce proteins for other cells or for use in the bloodstream, or whatever it might be. And that's what we're going to focus on in this video. So contiguous with this what's called a perinuclear space right over here, so the space between these two membranes-- So you have this perinuclear space between the inner and outer nuclear membrane. Let me just label that. That's the inner nuclear membrane. That's the outer nuclear membrane.
You could continue this outer nuclear membrane, and you get into these kind of flaps and folds and bulges. And this right over here is considered a separate organelle. So you get this thing that looks like this, and I'll just do it the best that I can draw it.
And this right over here is called the endoplasmic reticulum. So this right here is endoplasmic reticulum, which I've always thought would be a good name for a band.Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies - Biology - Khan Academy
And the endoplasmic reticulum is key for starting to produce and then later on package proteins that are either embedded in the cellular membrane or used outside of the cell itself.
So how does that happen?
Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies
Well, the endoplasmic reticulum really has two regions. It has the rough endoplasmic reticulum. And the rough endoplasmic reticulum has a bunch of ribosomes. So that's a free ribosome right over here. This is an attached ribosome. These are ribosomes that are attached to the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. So this region where you have attached ribosomes right over here, that is the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
I'll call it the rough ER for short. Perhaps an even better name for a band.
Endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus
And then there's another region, which is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. And the role that this plays in protein synthesis, or at least getting proteins ready for the outside of the cell, is you can have messenger RNA-- let me do that in that lighter green color-- you can have messenger RNA find one of these ribosomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
And as the protein is translated, it won't be translated inside the cytosol. It'll be translated on the other side of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Or you could say on the inside of it, in the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Let me make that a little bit-- let me draw that a little bit better.
So let's say that this right over here, that right over here is the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. And then as a protein, or as a mRNA is being translated into protein, the ribosome can attach. And let's say that this right over here is the mRNA that is being translated. Let's say it's going in that direction right over here. Here is the membrane of the ER.
This right over here-- and actually, the way I've drawn it right over here, this is just one bilipid layer.
So let me just draw it like this. I could do it like this. And this is actually, this bilipid layer is continuous. It's continuous with the outer nuclear membrane. So let me just make it like that so you get the picture. And then at some point in the translation process, the protein can be spit out on the inside. Here's a vesicle butting off the endoplasmic reticulum. Of course, the protein is inside of it.
And that vesicle will merge with the Golgi apparatus, and the protein will end up inside the Golgi apparatus.
And this part of the Golgi apparatus is known as the cis stack. The cis stack is the part that's closest to the endoplasmic reticulum. Now, this protein that's in the Golgi apparatus will undergo modifications.
It'll get transferred to the middle part of the Golgi apparatus.
The middle part is known as the medial stack. In the medial stack, it'll also be modified in different ways, and then, it'll eventually land up in this part of the Golgi apparatus. This part is known as the trans stack. The trans stack is the part that's furthest away from the endoplasmic reticulum.
And from the trans stack, a vesicle will kind of butt off and that vesicle will be holding the protein in it. And from here, this protein can take a couple of different paths.
One thing that might happen to it is maybe it's destined to land up in the lysosome. So, let's say this is a lysosome. So, in this case, the vesicle will move towards the lysosome, merge with it, and land up in the lysosome.
Endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus (video) | Khan Academy
I'm gonna digress for just a moment. If you recall earlier, I grouped together the endoplasmic reticulum with the Golgi apparatus, with the lysosomes, and I'm gonna add one more organelle to this group, the cell membrane. And the reason that I grouped all these organelles together is that they're all part of the secretory pathway. Take a look at the protein we just spoke about. It was made in the endoplasmic reticulum where a vesicle butted off, then, the protein landed up in the Golgi apparatus, and then, another vesicle popped off and the protein ended up in the lysosome.
So, all of these organelles have ways of transferring proteins between them. Let's say the protein we mentioned was not supposed to go to the lysosome.
Maybe it was supposed to go to be secreted from the cell, or maybe, it's supposed to become a protein, that's part of the cell membrane, so, let's butt off another two vesicles. Let's say that this vesicle has in it proteins that need to be secreted from the cell. And let's say this vesicle has, on its membrane, a protein that needs to end up on the membrane of this cell.
Let's see what happens to these two vesicles. So, here is the vesicle with the proteins that need to be secreted. And here's the vesicle with the protein that needs to end up in the cell membrane.
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