Culture of Greece - Wikipedia
perhaps the most important of the Greek philosophers, maintained this ethical mathematics loomed far less large than art and literature in conveying key. Hellenistic Culture: Philosophy, Literature and Art Neither chemistry nor biology bore any definite relationship to trade or to the forms of industry then in. One popular form of Greek art was pottery. Vases, vessels, and kraters served both practical and aesthetic purposes. This krater depicts Helios, the sun god, and.
In fact, while it may seem like dialogue was always a part of literature, it was rare before a playwright named Aeschylus introduced the idea of characters interacting with dialogue. In addition to written forms of theater and literature, oral traditions were important, especially in early Greek history. Greek art, particularly sculpture and architecture, was also incredibly influential on other societies.
Greek sculpture from to BCE took inspiration from Egyptian and Near Eastern monumental art and, over centuries, evolved into a uniquely Greek vision of the art form. Greek artists reached a peak of excellence which captured the human form in a way never before seen and much copied.
Greek sculptors were particularly concerned with proportion, poise, and the idealized perfection of the human body; their figures in stone and bronze have become some of the most recognizable pieces of art ever produced by any civilization.
The First Great Age of Science in Hellenistic period
This statue of Eirene, peace, bearing Plutus, wealth is a Roman copy of a Greek votive statue by Kephisodotos which stood on the agora in Athens, Wealth ca. Wikimedia Commons Greek architects provided some of the finest and most distinctive buildings in the entire Ancient World and some of their structures— including temples, theatres, and stadia—would become staple features of towns and cities from antiquity onwards.
In addition, the Greek concern with simplicity, proportion, perspective, and harmony in their buildings would go on to greatly influence architects in the Roman world and provide the foundation for the classical architectural orders which would dominate the western world from the Renaissance to the present day. The legacy of Greek culture The civilization of ancient Greece was immensely influential in many spheres: It had major effects on the Roman Empire which ultimately ruled it.
As Horace put it, "Captive Greece took captive her fierce conqueror and instilled her arts in rustic Latium. The Byzantine Empire inherited Classical Greek culture directly, without Latin intermediation, and the preservation of classical Greek learning in medieval Byzantine tradition exerted strong influence on the Slavs and later on the Islamic Golden Age and the Western European Renaissance.
As the result, it will be exhibited clearly the historical evolution of this idea and its relationship with the development of western art and culture. The Contribution of Thinkers 2.
Influences in History 4. The Contribution of Thinkers Immanuel Kant had commented ancient Greek thoughts in his philosophy critique: Greeks firstly began to think in philosophical way among all ancient nations.
Classical Greek culture
For they tried to avoid following the trace of images, they were to cultivate rational knowledge with abstraction. Instead, the other nations always had the concepts intelligible by concreteness of image [ 1 ]. Such contribution came at first from ancient Greek philosophers.
Thales, Pythagoras, and Heraclitus could be the representatives, but Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were the best well known. The reason why they were mentioned here in advance is, as the agents of ancient Greek thoughts, they provided a foundation for thinking way in that civilisation region. Although they presented in diversified even opposite methods in our minds, we still discover the consistency under the multifarious expresses.
We call such think way as "rationalism". Socrates had stated "the unexamined life is not worth living". This remembered sentence once reflected their characteristics of prudence and reason. So, the author of A Global History has said the ancient Greek spirit: We could have some associations to this narration: Still in the same book A Global History, Stavrianos remarked: This statement hit a key point.
It is that rationalism may deeply influence the artistic creativity of ancient Greece. The ancient Greek art indeed received affect from ancient Egypt in its early age, but then, it developed its own attributes gradually.
The invention of "foreshortening" in painting was ever an important landmark within such development [ 3 ]. The perspective contradiction of ancient Egyptian art had been overcome by Greek artists.
They began to make realistic visual observation as the basis of artistic creation [ 3 ]. There is no doubt that the realistic observation basis disclosed the reason hold by Greeks at that time.
In the process of artistic creation, the Greek arts already had the objects into perspective space which they had recognised logically. There was an essential concept in ancient Greek aesthetics. Imitation was the name. Imitation itself contained the factor of rational cognition. However, the imitation in ancient Greek mind was not ever the photographic copy in present.
Their imitation was viewed as a way for realisation of ideas. On the concept of imitation as ancient Greek aesthetical thought, Lionello Venturi has told that imitation of nature is necessary, but similarly, idealisation of nature is also necessary, which accord with physical and ethical good, and conform to mathematical relationship and noble sentiments [ 4 ]. The idealised art by imitation corresponded to their rationalism.
It could be regarded as artistic manifestation of such idea. Another point is worthy to be mentioned here, it is the scientific trend in ancient Greek art.
The mathematical idea of Pythagoras gave a foundation for their relationship, as he said "Everything is number" [ 5 ]. Indeed, the thinking way of "Everything is number" permeated into art and evolved to arithmetic or geometric analysis and the consequent emphasis on form and scale. When talking about an ancient Greek painter, Xenocrates said that his general contribution was the scientific base for painting [ 4 ].
The intensive consideration of form and scale were still obvious in ancient Greek architecture. This idea was already developed into a series principle terms. Almost everyone in the former Alexandrian empire spoke and read the same language: Koine was a unifying cultural force: No matter where a person came from, he could communicate with anyone in this cosmopolitan Hellenistic world.
At the same time, many people felt alienated in this new political and cultural landscape. Once upon a time, citizens had been intimately involved with the workings of the democratic city-states; now, they lived in impersonal empires governed by professional bureaucrats.
In Hellenistic art and literature, this alienation expressed itself in a rejection of the collective demos and an emphasis on the individual.
- 5e. Art and Architecture
- Culture of Greece
- Ancient Aesthetics
Hellenistic philosophers, too, turned their focus inward. Diogenes the Cynic lived his life as an expression of protest against commercialism and cosmopolitanism.