Foreign Policy & Diplomacy-Introduction to Diplomacy | Appu Nath - relax-sakura.info
Comprehensive list of synonyms for general words relating to international a country that has a good relationship with another country shuttle diplomacy. Synonyms for diplomatic at relax-sakura.info with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and Meaning "pertaining to international relations" is recorded from International relations definition is - a branch of political science concerned with relations between nations and primarily with foreign policies.
During the Roman Republic the Senate conducted foreign policy, though a department for foreign affairs was established. Later, under the Empire, the emperor was the ultimate decision maker in foreign affairs. Envoys were received with ceremony and magnificence, and they and their aides were granted immunity.
Roman envoys were sent abroad with written instructions from their government. Sometimes a messenger, or nuntius, was sent, usually to towns. For larger responsibilities a legatio embassy of 10 or 12 legati ambassadors was organized under a president.
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The legati, who were leading citizens chosen for their skill at oratory, were inviolable. Rome also created sophisticated archiveswhich were staffed by trained archivists. Paleographic techniques were developed to decipher and authenticate ancient documents.
Other archivists specialized in diplomatic precedents and procedures, which became formalized. For centuries these archive-based activities were the major preoccupation of diplomacy in and around the Roman Empire.
Roman lawwhich stressed the sanctity of contracts, became the basis of treaties. The Middle Ages When the Western Empire disintegrated in the 5th century ce, most of its diplomatic traditions disappeared.
However, even as monarchs negotiated directly with nearby rulers or at a distance through envoys from the 5th through the 9th century, the papacy continued to use legati. Both forms of diplomacy intensified in the next three centuries. Moreover, the eastern half of the Roman Empire continued for nearly 1, years as the Byzantine Empire.
Its court at Constantinople, to which the papacy sent envoys from the mid-5th century, had a department of foreign affairs and a bureau to deal with foreign envoys. The community of Islam aspired to a single human society in which secular institutions such as the state would have no significant role. In such a society there would be political interaction but no requirement for diplomatic missions between one independent ruler and another.
Theoretically, since non-Muslim states eventually would accept the message of Islam, the need for diplomatic exchanges between them and the Islamic community also would be purely temporary. In practice, however, diplomatic missions, both to other Muslim states and to non-Muslim states, existed from the time of Muhammadand early Islamic rulers and jurists developed an elaborate set of protections and rules to facilitate the exchange of emissaries. As Muslims came to dominate vast territories in AfricaAsiaand Europethe experience of contention with Byzantium shaped Islamic diplomatic tradition along Byzantine lines.
Byzantium Byzantium produced the first professional diplomats. They were issued written instructions and were enjoined to be polite, to entertain as lavishly as funds permitted, and to sell Byzantine wares to lower their costs and encourage trade.
From the 12th century their role as gatherers of information about conditions in their host states became increasingly vital to the survival of the Byzantine state. As its strength waned, timely intelligence from Byzantine diplomats enabled the emperors to play foreign nations off against each other.
Indeed, even in its period of greatest weakness, the Roman Catholic Church conducted an active diplomacy, especially at Constantinople and in its 13th-century struggle against the Holy Roman emperors. Popes served as arbiters, and papal legates served as peacemakers. The prestige of the church was such that, at every court, papal emissaries took precedence over secular envoys, a tradition that continues in countries where Roman Catholicism is the official religion.
The Roman emphasis on the sanctity of legates became part of canon lawand church lawyers developed increasingly elaborate rules governing the status, privileges, and conduct of papal envoys, rules that were adapted later for secular use. Still later, rules devised for late medieval church councils provided guidelines for modern international conferences. From the 6th century, both legates and lesser-ranking nuncii messengers carried letters of credence to assure the rulers to whom they were accredited of the extent of their authority as agents of the popea practice later adopted for lay envoys.
In time, the terms legate and nuncius came to be used for the diplomatic representatives of secular rulers as well as the pope. By the 12th century the secular use of nuncii as diplomatic agents was commonplace. When diplomacy was confined to nearby states and meetings of rulers were easily arranged, a visiting messenger such as the nuncius sufficed.
However, as trade revived, negotiations at a distance became increasingly common.
Envoys no longer could refer the details of negotiations to their masters on a timely basis. They therefore needed the discretionary authority to decide matters on their own.International Relations: An Introduction
To meet this need, in the 12th century the concept of a procurator with plena potens full powers was revived from Roman civil law. This plenipotentiary could negotiate and conclude an agreement, but, unlike a nuncius, he could not represent his principal ceremonially. As a result, one emissary was often given both offices.
Venice At the end of the 12th century, the term ambassador appeared, initially in Italy. By the late 15th century, the envoys of secular rulers were commonly called ambassadors, though the papacy continued to send legates and nuncii.
Each ambassador carried a letter of credence, though he could not commit his principal unless granted plenipotentiary authority. On the basis of Byzantine precedents, Venice gave its envoys written instructions, a practice otherwise unknown in the West, and established a systematic archive.
The Venetian archives contain a registry of all diplomatic documents from Venice later developed an extensive diplomacy on the Byzantine model, which emphasized the reporting of conditions in the host country.
Initially, returning Venetian envoys presented their relazione final report orally, but, beginning in the 15th century, such reports were presented in writing. Other Italian city-states, followed by France and Spaincopied Venetian diplomatic methods and style. The Renaissance to The development of Italian diplomacy It is unclear which Italian city-state had the first permanent envoy. In the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance period, most embassies were temporary, lasting from three months to two years.
As early as the late 14th and early 15th centuries, however, Venice, Milanand Mantua sent resident envoys to each other, to the popes, and to the Holy Roman emperors. At this time, envoys generally did not travel with their wives who were assumed to be indiscreetbut their missions usually employed cooks for purposes of hospitality and to avoid being poisoned.
Resident embassies became the norm in Italy in the late 15th century, and after the practice spread northward. A permanent Milanese envoy to the French court of Louis XI arrived in and was later joined by a Venetian representative. Ambassadors served a variety of roles, including reporting events to their government and negotiating with their hosts. In addition, they absorbed the role of commercial consuls, who were not then diplomatic agents. Whereas meetings of rulers aroused expectations and were considered risky, unobtrusive diplomacy by resident envoys was deemed safer and more effective.
diplomacy | Nature, Purpose, History, & Practice | relax-sakura.info
Thus, the system of permanent agents took root, with members of the upper middle class or younger sons of great families serving as envoys. Rome became the centre of Italian diplomacy and of intrigue, information gathering, and spying. Popes received ambassadors but did not send them. The papal court had the first organized diplomatic corps: As resident missions became the norm, ceremonial and social occasions came to dominate the relations between diplomats and their hosts, especially because the dignity of the sovereign being represented was at stake.
Papal envoys took precedence over those of temporal rulers.
Beyond that there was little agreement on the relative status of envoys, and there was frequent strife. Pope Julius II established a list of precedence inbut this did not solve the problem. By the 16th century the title of ambassador was being used only for envoys of crowned heads and the republic of Venice. Latin remained the international language of diplomacy.
The French invasion of confronted the Italian states with intervention by a power greater than any within their own state system. They were driven to substitute subtle diplomacy and expedient, if short-lived, compromise for the force they lacked.
But it was no more so than that of other states, and Machiavelli, himself a Florentine diplomat, argued that an envoy needed integrityreliability, and honesty, along with tact and skill in the use of occasional equivocation and selective abridgment of aspects of the truth unfavourable to his cause—views seconded since by virtually every authority.
Henry VII of England was among the first to adopt the Italian diplomatic system, and he initially even used Italian envoys. Courtesy of the Governing Body of Christ Church, Oxford In the 16th and early 17th centuries, bureaucracies scarcely existed. Courtiers initially filled this role, but, by the middle of the 16th century, royal secretaries had taken charge of foreign affairs amid their other duties.
Envoys remained personal emissaries of one ruler to another. Because they were highly trusted and communications were slow, ambassadors enjoyed considerable freedom of action.
Their task was complicated by the ongoing religious wars, which generated distrust, narrowed contacts, and jeopardized the reporting that was essential before newspapers were widespread. The religious wars of the early 17th century were an Austro-French power struggle. Grotius deplored the strife of the era, which had undermined the traditional props of customary and canon law. In an effort to convert the law of nations into a law among nations and to provide it with a new secular rationale acceptable to both sides in the religious quarrel, Grotius fell back on the classical view of natural law and the rule of reason.
His book—considered the first definitive work of international law despite its debt to earlier scholars—enunciated the concepts of state sovereignty and the equality of sovereign states, both basic to the modern diplomatic system.
Courtesy of the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam The development of the foreign ministry and embassies The first modern foreign ministry was established in in France by Cardinal Richelieu. Richelieu saw diplomacy as a continuous process of negotiation, arguing that a diplomat should have one master and one policy.
He asserted that the art of government lay in recognizing these interests and acting according to them, regardless of ethical or religious considerations. In this, Richelieu enunciated principles that leaders throughout the world now accept as axioms of statecraft.
Cardinal RichelieuFull-length portrait of Cardinal Richelieu, French prelate and statesman, 19th century. He largely succeeded, for the Peace of Westphalia of weakened Austria and enhanced French power. The four years of meetings before its signature were the first great international congresses of modern history.
Princes attended, but diplomats did most of the work in secret meetings, especially because by this time there was a corps of experienced diplomats who were mutually well acquainted.
- 250 words from the domain of diplomacy
However, the task of the diplomats was complicated by the need for two simultaneous congresses, because the problem of precedence was otherwise insoluble. The Treaty of Westphalia did not solve precedence disputes, which reflected rivalry between states. The war between France and Spainwhich continued from towas partly about this issue.
War was narrowly averted, but questions of precedence continued to bedevil European diplomacy. To communicate securely with its own installations, England established the first modern courier service inand several states used ciphers. A wide variety of people had been employed as ambassadors, ministers, or residents a more economical envoy usually reserved for lesser tasks. The glittering court of Louis XIV late in the 17th century transformed this situation dramatically.
Also, as kings became better established, nobles were more willing to serve them. Thus, diplomacy became a profession dominated by the aristocracy. French continued as the lingua franca of diplomacy until the 20th century.
Louis XIV personally directed French foreign policy and read the dispatches of his ambassadors himself. Envoys were assigned for three or four years and given letters of credence, instructions, and ciphers for secret correspondence. Because ambassadors chose and paid for their own staff, they were required to have great wealth.
Some states regularized the position of consuls as state officials, though they were not considered diplomats. The French system was imitated in the 18th century as other major states established foreign ministries. The ambassadors they sent forth were true plenipotentiaries, able to conclude treaties on their own authority. The title of ambassador was used only for the envoys of kings and for those from Venice.
The diplomacy of the time recognized the existence of great powers by according special rank and responsibility to the representatives of these countries. New among these was Russiawhich entered European diplomacy in the 18th century.
Its diplomatic tradition married elements derived directly from Byzantium to the now essentially mature diplomatic system that had arisen in western Europe. The founders of American diplomacy—people such as Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson —accepted the norms of European diplomacy but declined to wear court dress or to adopt usages they considered unrepublican. To this day, U. Most of these authors argued that to be effective, ambassadors needed to exercise intelligence, trustworthiness, humaneness, foresight, courage, a sense of humour, and sternness if only to compensate for the not-infrequent lack of these qualities in the national leaders in whose names they acted.
The Concert of Europe to the outbreak of World War I Balance of power and the Concert of Europe Through the many wars and peace congresses of the 18th century, European diplomacy strove to maintain a balance between five great powers: Britain, FranceAustriaRussiaand Prussia. It also dealt with international problems internationally, taking up issues such as rivers, the slave tradeand the rules of diplomacy. The Final Act of Vienna ofas amended at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle Aachen inestablished four classes of heads of diplomatic missions—precedence within each class being determined by the date of presentation of credentials—and a system for signing treaties in French alphabetical order by country name.
Thus ended the battles over precedence. Unwritten rules also were established. Until the United States had no ambassadors; like those of other lesser states, its envoys were only ministers. More unwritten rules were soon developed. This clause, which created a Concert of Europeentailed cooperation and restraint as well as a tacit code: The Concert thus constituted a rudimentary system of international governance by a consortium of great powers.
Initially, meetings of the Concert were attended by rulers, chancellors, and foreign ministers. The first meeting, which was held at Aix-la-Chapelle inresulted in the admittance of France to the Concert and the secret renewal of the Quadruple Alliance against it.
The meeting also refined diplomatic rules and tackled other international questions. Aix was the first international congress held in peacetime and the first to attract coverage by the press, relations with whom were conducted by the secretary-general of the congress. Thereafter, congresses met in response to crises. Owing to disputes between the powers, after the meetings ceased, though the Concert of Europe itself continued unobtrusively.
Beginning in an ambassadorial conference was established in Paris to address issues arising from the treaty with France. Other conferences of ambassadors followed—usually in LondonVienna, or Paris—to address specific international problems and to sanction change when it seemed advisable or unavoidable. Diplomats continued to adjust and amend the European system with conferences, ranging from the meeting held in London in that endorsed Belgian independence to the meeting in —13, also held in London, to resolve the Balkan Wars.
The Concert was stretched and then disregarded altogether between andduring the Crimean War and the unifications of Italy and Germany. The century during which it existed — was generally peaceful, marred only by short, limited wars; the bloodshed of one of these wars, the second war of Italian independence, inspired the creation in the s of the International Committee for the Relief of the Wounded later the International Red Cross as an international nongovernmental agency.
Conference diplomacy and the impact of democratization After three decades Europe reverted to conference diplomacy at the foreign ministerial level. Few of us would claim that the Department of State or any other U. Our Foreign Service Institute, for all its virtues and our fond memoriesis essentially a training, not an educational, institution. However, there are signs of growing interest in diplomacy education, expressed, for example, in a paper the American Foreign Service Association recently submitted to the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review drafting team.
First, though, we need to reach agreement on what diplomacy means. There is much confusion about the concept—and not just among lay people, but among its practitioners, as well. Part of this derives from the fact that English is a tricky language, requiring a good deal of care to ensure that what is said is what is meant.
Even at the level of single words, misunderstandings can occur, given that words often have multiple meanings. Even in the context of its original meaning, there is much confusion among several terms that many people erroneously believe are synonyms for diplomacy: A Semantic Overlap This gives us a nice progression from the general subject foreign affairs to a specific manifestation foreign policyand on to implementation diplomacy. But that leads, in turn, to another potential source of confusion.
In the policy context, each government has its own diplomacy. But in the operational sense, diplomacy also refers to the conduct of business between and among governments, carried out through bureaucratic institutions and processes.
Obviously, these terms and what they represent overlap.