human/nature relationship to elucidate the history of this relationship. Then the paper according to White, “Man's relation to the soil was profoundly changed. The economic, social, and environmental planning practices of societies embodying 'urban sustainability' livable for humans. about the non- renewability of natural resources as a factor mum of relationships and exchanges. This set of. The present study investigated whether and how ecology and environmental education (EEE) affects the understanding of the Human-Nature relationship by.
Declensionist narratives[ edit ] Narratives of environmental history tend to be declensionist, that is, accounts of progressive decline under human activity. Presentism literary and historical analysis Under the accusation of "presentism" it is sometimes claimed that, with its genesis in the late 20th century environmentalism and conservation issues, environmental history is simply a reaction to contemporary problems, an "attempt to read late twentieth century developments and concerns back into past historical periods in which they were not operative, and certainly not conscious to human participants during those times".
In environmental debate blame can always be apportioned, but it is more constructive for the future to understand the values and imperatives of the period under discussion so that causes are determined and the context explained.
Environmental determinism and Cultural determinism Ploughing farmer in ancient Egypt. Mural in the burial chamber of artisan Sennedjem c.
- Environmental history
The claim that the path of history has been forged by environmental rather than cultural forces is referred to as environmental determinism while, at the other extreme, is what may be called cultural determinism. An example of cultural determinism would be the view that human influence is so pervasive that the idea of pristine nature has little validity - that there is no way of relating to nature without culture. Historical method Recording historical events Useful guidance on the process of doing environmental history has been given by Donald Worster,  Carolyn Merchant,  William Cronon  and Ian Simmons.
The tools are those of both history and science with a requirement for fluency in the language of natural science and especially ecology. Shikar, Subsistence, Sustenance and the Sciences Kolkata: Readers Service, Chakrabarti, Ranjan ed. Manohar, Cronon, William edUncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature New York: The Environmental History of Settler Societies.
Cambridge University Press, Hughes, J. Routledge, Hughes, J. The Long View", Globalizations, Vol.
Man in the Realm of Nature
The Decline of Nature: The Global Environmental Movement. Forestry and Imperial Eco-Development, Oxford: The MIT Press, Williams, MichaelDeforesting the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis. The Remaking of the Columbia River. A Study of Ecological Ideals.
Donald Hughes has also provided a global conspectus of major contributions to the environmental history literature. David Lowenthal Cambridge, MA: Lesotho Adams, Jonathan S. Conservation without Illusion Berkeley: Journal of Historical Geography. Histories, Ecologies, and Societies," Environment and History, 10pp.
Cases and Comparisons Athens: A South African History Cambridge: Sharing the Approach and the Experience New York: An Environmental History of Africa, Portsmouth: Heinemann, Showers, Kate B. Soil Erosion and Conservation in Lesotho pp Steyn, Phia, "The lingering environmental impact of repressive governance: A Journey to Antarctica.
University of Iowa Press, North and South America[ edit ] Further information: Forests, Conservation, and Community in Mexico. Duke University Press A postcolonial environmental history of the Papaloapan Projects in Mexico.
University of Florida With Broadax and Firebrand: The Destruction of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. University of California Press, Dorsey, Kurkpatrick. The Dawn of Conservation Diplomacy: From Rainforest to Cane Field in Cuba: An Environmental History since Authority, Expertise, and Power in Mexican Forests. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, A Plague of Sheep: Environmental Consequences of the Conquest of Mexico.
An Environmental History of Latin America. Portuguese Conservation and Brazil's Colonial Timber. Stanford University Press Noss, Andrew and Imke Oetting. Raffles, Hugh, et al. Transformations of Rivers and Streams". Latin American Research Review. The Ecology of Oil: Environment, Labor, and the Mexican Revolution, Cambridge University Press Defending the Land of the Jaguar: A History of Conservation in Mexico.
University of Texas Press, Wakild, Emily. Today there is greater emphasis on the problems facing individuals and how actors deal with them with the consequence that there is much more attention to decision-making at the individual level as people strategize and optimize risk, costs and benefits within specific contexts.
Some of these applications focus instead on addressing problems that cross disciplinary boundaries or transcend those boundaries altogether. Scholarship has increasingly tended away from Gerald L. Young 's idea of a "unified theory" of human ecological knowledge—that human ecology may emerge as its own discipline—and more toward the pluralism best espoused by Paul Shepard: This new human ecology emphasizes complexity over reductionismfocuses on changes over stable states, and expands ecological concepts beyond plants and animals to include people.
Application to epidemiology and public health[ edit ] The application of ecological concepts to epidemiology has similar roots to those of other disciplinary applications, with Carl Linnaeus having played a seminal role. However, the term appears to have come into common use in the medical and public health literature in the mid-twentieth century.
However, as early as the s, a number of universities began to rename home economics departments, schools, and colleges as human ecology programs. In part, this name change was a response to perceived difficulties with the term home economics in a modernizing society, and reflects a recognition of human ecology as one of the initial choices for the discipline which was to become home economics.
Niche of the Anthropocene[ edit ] See also: Novel ecosystem Perhaps the most important implication involves our view of human society. Homo sapiens is not an external disturbance, it is a keystone species within the system. In the long term, it may not be the magnitude of extracted goods and services that will determine sustainability.
It may well be our disruption of ecological recovery and stability mechanisms that determines system collapse. Human ecology has created anthropogenic biomes called anthromes. Technodiversity exists within these technoecosystems.
Environmental history - Wikipedia
Ecosystem services A bumblebee pollinating a flower, one example of an ecosystem service Policy and human institutions should rarely assume that human enterprise is benign. A safer assumption holds that human enterprise almost always exacts an ecological toll - a debit taken from the ecological commons.
Ecosystems regulate the global geophysical cycles of energy, climate, soil nutrients, and water that in turn support and grow natural capital including the environmental, physiological, cognitive, cultural, and spiritual dimensions of life.
Ultimately, every manufactured product in human environments comes from natural systems. The ecological commons includes provisioning e. Holocene extinction Global assessments of biodiversity indicate that the current epoch, the Holocene or Anthropocene  is a sixth mass extinction. Species loss is accelerating at — times faster than average background rates in the fossil record.
Ecosystems regenerate, withstand, and are forever adapting to fluctuating environments. Ecological resilience is an important conceptual framework in conservation management and it is defined as the preservation of biological relations in ecosystems that persevere and regenerate in response to disturbance over time. However, persistent, systematic, large and nonrandom disturbance caused by the niche constructing behavior of human beings, habitat conversion and land development, has pushed many of the Earth's ecosystems to the extent of their resilient thresholds.