Agamemnon and Menelaus Fighting in Troy by on Prezi
The The Iliad characters covered include: Achilles, Agamemnon (also called “ Atrides”) calling attention to the unclear nature of the gods' relationship to Fate. Keywords Agamemnon – Menelaus – Atreidae – quarrel – Homer to do with the relationship between the two sons of Atreus, Agamemnon and Menelaus, .. it would appear that the quarrel of the Atreidae served little purpose except as a. Jan 5, Agamemnon was the king of Mycenae. He was also the son of Arteus, husband of Clytmnestra, and brother of Menelaus. Agamemnon was the.
Achilles ' surrender of Briseis to Agamemnon, from the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeiifresco, 1st century AD, now in the Naples National Archaeological Museum Classical dramatizations differ on how willing either father or daughter was to this fate; some include such trickery as claiming she was to be married to Achillesbut Agamemnon did eventually sacrifice Iphigenia. Her death appeased Artemis, and the Greek army set out for Troy.
Several alternatives to the human sacrifice have been presented in Greek mythology. Other sources, such as Iphigenia at Aulissay that Agamemnon was prepared to kill his daughter, but that Artemis accepted a deer in her place, and whisked her away to Tauris in the Crimean Peninsula.
Hesiod said she became the goddess Hecate. Agamemnon was the commander-in-chief of the Greeks during the Trojan War. During the fighting, Agamemnon killed Antiphus and fifteen other Trojan soldiers, according to one source. Even before his "aristea," Agamemnon was considered to be one of the three best warriors on the Greek side as proven when Hector challenges any champion of the Greek side to fight him in Book 7, and Agamemnon along with Diomedes and Big Aias is one of the three most wished for to face him out of the nine strongest Greek warriors who volunteered.
And after they reconciled, even Achilles admits in Book 23 that Agamemnon is "the best in strength and in throwing the spear. The Iliad tells the story about the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles in the final year of the war. Following one of the Achaean Army's raids, Chryseisdaughter of Chrysesone of Apollo's priests, was taken as a war prize by Agamemnon.
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Chryses pleaded with Agamemnon to free his daughter but was met with little success. Chryses then prayed to Apollo for the safe return of his daughter, which Apollo responded to by unleashing a plague over the Achaean Army. After learning from the Prophet Calchas that the plague could be dispelled by returning Chryseis to her father, Agamemnon reluctantly agreed but first berated Calchas for previously forcing Agamemnon to sacrifice his daughter, Iphigenia and released his prize.
However, as compensation for his lost prize, Agamemnon demanded a new prize. As a result, Agamemnon stole an attractive slave called Briseisone of the spoils of war, from Achilles. Greek writers generally portray Agamemnon as courageous but also as arrogant and overly proud, flaws that sometimes cause him misfortune and eventually lead to his death. The story of Agamemnon is often seen as a warning about the dangers of hubris. Agamemnon was one of two sons of Atreus, the king of Mycenae.
While Agamemnon was still a youth, Atreus was murdered by his brother. Agamemnon and his brother, Menelaus, fled to the city-state of Sparta, where they found refuge and protection from King Tyndareos.
The king gave his daughters to the brothers as wives. One daughter, Clytemnestra, was already married, but Agamemnon killed her husband, Tantalus, and then married her. Menelaus took her beautiful sister Helen as his bride.
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Agamemnon later returned to Mycenae, killed his uncle, and reclaimed the throne of his father. He and Clytemnestra eventually had three daughters—Chrysothemis, Electra, and Iphigenia—and a son, Orestes. Meanwhile, Menelaus became king of Sparta after the death of Tyndareos. When Paris returned to Troy, he took Helen with him. At the time of Menelaus's marriage to Helen, all the rulers of the Greek city-states had promised to come to her defense if necessary.
Menelaus reminded them of their promise, and they agreed to go to war against Troy to bring Helen back. Agamemnon was chosen to lead the Greeks in battle. Agamemnon prepared a fleet of ships to carry the Greeks to Troy. As punishment, Artemis caused the winds to die down so that the Greek fleet could not sail. The Mesopotamians regretted the fact that humans could not live forever like the gods. Their mythical heroes sought eternal life even though the gods showed them that they were doomed to fail.
Benjamin Sammons mnemosyne 67 brill. December Abstract In Odyssey Book 3, Nestor relates how a quarrel between the Atreidae led to a split of the Achaean army over departure from Troy. This story implies a representation of Agamemnon and Menelaus, their relationship, and their respective political roles, that is not reconcilable with that of the Iliad.
Keywords Agamemnon — Menelaus — Atreidae — quarrel — Homer — Euripides This paper attempts to make the case that a single detail in a single speech of Nestor in the Odyssey provides a brief glimpse of a tradition that is absent from the Iliad, but that nevertheless left its mark not only on the Odyssey but on the Epic Cycle and several Attic tragedies.
The tradition in question has to do with the relationship between the two sons of Atreus, Agamemnon and Menelaus, and their respective positions within the Achaean community at Troy.
The matter suggests that the basic characterization of major figures, and the depiction of their relationships with one another, could be as much a matter of tradition as their function within specific narratives or their basic heroic biography.
At the same time, it seems likely that in this area poets exercised more freedom to choose from existing traditions, or to craft their own vision, than was the case with the so- called Faktenkanon or basic facts of mythological history. My argument involves three steps: Second, I argue that some evidence external to the Homeric poems shows that despite the brevity of the Odyssean passage, the tradition it reflects remained vital and attractive to poets of later ages.
The narrative begins with a disordered, nocturnal assembly of the Achaeans after the sack of Troy, called by both Agamemnon and Menelaus simultaneously. Sommerstein in Sommerstein et al. It is unlikely, however, that having championed the policy of immedi- ate departure, Menelaus would then delay his own departure and come straggling after oth- ers.
Lines may be merely anaphoric, but could also imply that even Nestor and Diomedes themselves made separate departures from Tenedos.
Agamemnon is often spoken of, or speaks of himself, as commander of the expedition e. The Catalogue of Ships appears to reflect both the preeminence of Agamemnon and the subordination of Menelaus; see my discussion in Sammons, esp. Such private arguing is an aspect of their relationship in several relevant texts. That the Iliadic Menelaus would argue with his elder brother in the assembly is unlikely;5 that he would create a split in the Achaean host, and bring over to his own faction the likes of Nestor, Diomedes, and Odysseus seems almost unthinkable.
In the Iliad, the Achaeans normally hold assembly in the daytime, not in the evening or at night, although the latter practice is not unexampled and may be used to indicate a troubled situation.
Odysseus rescues Agamemnon from embarrassment after his disastrous test of the army in Book 2, buttresses his authority in a series of speeches,and makes a laughing stock of his critic Thersitesthough he later rebukes Agamemnon sharply Otherwise the Achaeans hold assembly in the daytime Il. It is also so on Ithaca Od. The Trojans, on the other hand, regularly hold assemblies at night Il.
He attempts to resolve the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles in Book 1 ff. It is he who advises Agamemnon to reconcile with Achilles in Book 9 95ff.
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Also in Book 9 53ff. He is never party to a dispute, and he speaks strongly about the importance of unity and the destructiveness of strife. Moreover, Frameis certainly right that the second quarrel on Tenedos, though described in the vaguest terms, could only have been a quarrel between Odysseus and Nestor himself.
All of these peculiarities may well buttress arguments that the quar- rel of the Atreidae was invented to satisfy very specific requirements of the 10 See Christensenesp. As Barkerobserves, the Nestor of Od. On this view, the quarrel of the Atreidae is traditional in the sense that quarrels are a traditional device for the opening of such nar- ratives, without necessarily implying that any strongly traditional idea of their relationship underlies the use of the device.
On the other hand, the quarrel seems to have a central place within this constellation: So it can at least be said that a great deal is made to depend on the 15 The quarrel seems to serve the function of splitting the army in half and hence is the first step in dividing a single nostos of the Achaeans into several distinct nostoi. Danek notes that the tragedians sometimes seem to describe the Achaeans leaving Troy together and only later being scattered by a storm, a version that leaves no room for the quarrel of the Atreidae: Page; Meyerhoff; West Yet it may well reflect a tradition possibly epic in which the army left together and stopped at Lesbos before being dispersed by the storm; on this view the Atreidae would be named not because they found themselves alone on Lesbos, but because as leaders of the expedition they conducted sacrifices in its interest.
For a more complicated reconstruction, see Huxley a, and b, Ford; Dickson; Marks; cf. Athena causes Agamemnon and Menelaus to quarrel about the depar- ture. Diomedes and Nestor set sail and make it home safely. Menelaus, having sailed after them, arrives in Egypt with five ships. To take an example, the quarrel of Achilles and Odysseus mentioned by Demodocus in the Odyssey 8.
All translations are my own. Bethereached similar conclusions from an Analytic perspective. It is probably the case that the main subject of this poem was the contrasting homecomings of the two Atreidae. On any one of these points the Odyssey could reflect, however briefly, a wide- spread tradition. One reason such questions are difficult to resolve is that so little remains of the many poems, epic or otherwise, that were early enough to preserve old tradition independent of Homeric influence.
Monro38; Bethe As we shall see, similarly vague language is found in some passages of the Iliad.
Calder40; Anderson; more on the Polyxena below. The message is intercepted by Menelaus, who angrily confronts his brother over an action that would be tantamount to ending the expedition. The brothers dis- pute the question in a typical Euripidean agon.
In a lengthy speech, Menelaus offers an interesting account of the origins of the Trojan War: