how the relationship between Nisus and Euryalus operates within the framework of Roman that are specifically Roman by historicizing the relationship between Nisus and "Nisus and Euryalus: A Platonic Relationship," CJ Type: Article; Author(s): John F. Makowski; Date: ; Volume: 85; Issue: 1; Page start: 1; Page end: 15; Check for local electronic subscriptions; Web address. 1 , PAVLOCK, "Epic and Tragedy in Vergil's Nisus and Euryalus Episode," "Nisus and Euryalus: A Platonic Relationship," The Classical Journal
Each poem narrates only a part of the war, the Iliad covers a short period in the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey concerns Odysseuss return to his home island of Ithaca, following the sack of Troy. Though these poems survive only in fragments, their content is known from an included in Proclus Chrestomathy. The authorship of the Cyclic Epics is uncertain, both the Homeric epics and the Epic Cycle take origin from oral tradition. Even after the composition of the Iliad, Odyssey, and the Cyclic Epics, events and details of the story that are only found in later authors may have been passed on through oral tradition and could be as old as the Homeric poems 6.
Iliad — The Iliad is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer. Then the epic narrative takes up events prophesied for the future, such as Achilles imminent death and the fall of Troy, although the narrative ends before these events take place.
However, as events are prefigured and alluded to more and more vividly. The Iliad is paired with something of a sequel, the Odyssey, along with the Odyssey, the Iliad is among the oldest extant works of Western literature, and its written version is usually dated to around the 8th century BC.
Recent statistical modelling based on language evolution gives a date of — BC, in the modern vulgate, the Iliad contains 15, lines, it is written in Homeric Greek, a literary amalgam of Ionic Greek and other dialects.
Note, Book numbers are in parentheses and come before the synopsis of the book, after an invocation to the Muses, the story launches in medias res towards the end of the Trojan War between the Trojans and the besieging Greeks. Chryses, a Trojan priest of Apollo, offers the Greeks wealth for the return of his daughter Chryseis, held captive of Agamemnon, although most of the Greek army is in favour of the offer, Agamemnon refuses.
Chryses prays for Apollos help, and Apollo causes a plague to afflict the Greek army, after nine days of plague, Achilles, the leader of the Myrmidon contingent, calls an assembly to deal with the problem. Under pressure, Agamemnon agrees to return Chryseis to her father, angered, Achilles declares that he and his men will no longer fight for Agamemnon but will go home.
Odysseus takes a ship and returns Chryseis to her father, whereupon Apollo ends the plague, in the meantime, Agamemnons messengers take Briseis away.
Achilles becomes very upset, sits by the seashore, and prays to his mother, Achilles asks his mother to ask Zeus to bring the Greeks to the breaking point by the Trojans, so Agamemnon will realize how much the Greeks need Achilles. Thetis does so, and Zeus agrees, Zeus sends a dream to Agamemnon, urging him to attack Troy. Agamemnon heeds the dream but decides to first test the Greek armys morale, the plan backfires, and only the intervention of Odysseus, inspired by Athena, stops a rout.
Odysseus confronts and beats Thersites, a soldier who voices discontent about fighting Agamemnons war. After a meal, the Greeks deploy in companies upon the Trojan plain, the poet takes the opportunity to describe the provenance of each Greek contingent.
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When news of the Greek deployment reaches King Priam, the Trojans too sortie upon the plain, in a list similar to that for the Greeks, the poet describes the Trojans and their allies.
The armies approach each other, but before they meet, Paris offers to end the war by fighting a duel with Menelaus, urged by his brother and head of the Trojan army, Hector. While Helen tells Priam about the Greek commanders from the walls of Troy, Paris is beaten, but Aphrodite rescues him and leads him to bed with Helen before Menelaus can kill him 7.
Odyssey — The Odyssey is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad, the Odyssey is fundamental to the modern Western canon, and is the second-oldest extant work of Western literature, the Iliad is the oldest.
Scholars believe the Odyssey was composed near the end of the 8th century BC, somewhere in Ionia, the poem mainly focuses on the Greek hero Odysseus, king of Ithaca, and his journey home after the fall of Troy.
It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War. In his absence, it is assumed Odysseus has died, and his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of suitors, the Mnesteres or Proci. The Odyssey continues to be read in the Homeric Greek and translated into languages around the world. Many scholars believe the poem was composed in an oral tradition by an aoidos, perhaps a rhapsode.
The details of the ancient oral performance and the conversion to a written work inspire continual debate among scholars. Among the most noteworthy elements of the text are its non-linear plot, in the English language as well as many others, the word odyssey has come to refer to an epic voyage.
The Odyssey has a lost sequel, the Telegony, which was not written by Homer and it was usually attributed in antiquity to Cinaethon of Sparta. In one source, the Telegony was said to have stolen from Musaeus by either Eugamon or Eugammon of Cyrene.
The Odyssey begins ten years after the end of the ten-year Trojan War, and Odysseus has still not returned home from the war. Odysseus protectress, the goddess Athena, requests to Zeus, king of the gods, to finally allow Odysseus to return home when Odysseus enemy, then, disguised as a Taphian chieftain named Mentes, she visits Telemachus to urge him to search for news of his father. He offers her hospitality, they observe the suitors dining rowdily while the bard Phemius performs a poem for them.
Penelope objects to Phemius theme, the Return from Troy, because it reminds her of her missing husband and that night Athena, disguised as Telemachus, finds a ship and crew for the true prince. The next morning, Telemachus calls an assembly of citizens of Ithaca to discuss what should be done with the suitors.
Accompanied by Athena, he departs for the Greek mainland and the household of Nestor, most venerable of the Greek warriors at Troy, now at home in Pylos 8. Greek love — Greek love is a term originally used by classicists to describe the sexual, primarily homoerotic, customs, practices and attitudes of the ancient Greeks.
It was frequently used as a euphemism for homosexuality and pederasty, the phrase is a product of the enormous impact of the reception of classical Greek culture on historical attitudes toward sexuality, and its influence on art and various intellectual movements. Following the work of sexuality theorist Michel Foucault, the validity of an ancient Greek model for gay culture has been questioned. In his essay Greek Love, Alastair Blanshard sees Greek love as one of the defining and it often serves as a coded phrase for pederasty, or to sanitize homosexual desire in historical contexts where it was considered unacceptable.
The German term griechische Liebe appears in German literature between andalong with socratische Liebe and platonische Liebe in reference to male-male attractions. Ancient Greece became a reference point by which homosexual men of a certain class. In the early Modern period, a disjuncture was carefully maintained between idealized male eros in the tradition, which was treated with reverence, and sodomy.
In his classic study Greek Homosexuality, Kenneth Dover points out that the English nouns a homosexual, there was no concept in ancient Greece equivalent to the modern conception of sexual preference, it was assumed that a person would have both hetero- and homosexual responses at different times. Evidence for same-sex attractions and behaviors is more abundant for men than for women, both romantic love and sexual passion between men were often considered normal, and under some circumstances healthy or admirable.
The most common male-male relationship was paiderasteia, an institution in which a mature male bonded with or mentored a teen-aged youth. Martin Litchfield West views Greek pederasty as a substitute for heterosexual love, Greek art and literature portray these relationships as sometimes erotic or sexual, or sometimes idealized, educational, non-consummated, or non-sexual.
Some Greek myths have been interpreted as reflecting the custom of paiderasteia, the death of Hyacinthus is also frequently referenced as a pederastic myth. The main Greek literary sources for Greek homosexuality are lyric poetry, Athenian comedy, the works of Plato and Xenophon, vase paintings from the s and s BCE depict courtship and sex between males.
In Latin, mos Graeciae or mos Graecorum refers to a variety of behaviors the ancient Romans regarded as Greek, including but not confined to sexual practice. Slaves often were given, and prostitutes sometimes assumed, Greek names regardless of their ethnic origin, the use of slaves defined Roman pederasty, sexual practices were somehow Greek when they were directed at freeborn boys openly courted in accordance with the Hellenic tradition of pederasty.
Effeminacy or a lack of discipline in managing ones sexual attraction to another male threatened a mans Roman-ness, by the close of the 2nd century BCE, however, the elevation of Greek literature and art as models of expression caused homoeroticism to be regarded as urbane and sophisticated. The consul Quintus Lutatius Catulus was among a circle of poets who made short, one of his few surviving fragments is a poem of desire addressed to a male with a Greek name, signaling the new aesthetic in Roman culture.
Nisus and Euryalus
The poems of Gaius Valerius Catullus, written in forms adapted from Greek meters and his Latin name and free-born status subvert pederastic tradition at Rome 9. Military of ancient Rome — In each war it acquired more territory until, when civil war ended the Roman Republic, nothing was left for the first emperor, Augustus, to do except declare it an empire and defend it. The role and structure of the military was then altered during the empire and it became less Roman, the duties of border protection and territorial administration being more and more taken by foreign mercenaries officered by Romans.
Its main body was the senate, which met in a still extant in the forum of Rome. Its decrees were handed off to the two officers of the state, the consuls. They could levy from the citizens military force they judged was necessary to execute the decree.
This they did in a draft of male citizens assembled by age class, the officers of the legion were tasked with selecting men for the ranks. The will of the SPQR was binding on the consuls and the men, the men were under a rigorous code, known now for its punitive crucifixion. The soldiers were busy doing whatever service needed to be done, soldiering, manning vessels, carpentry, blacksmithing, clerking.
They were trained as required, but also previous skills, such as a trade, were exploited and they brought to the task and were protected by the authority of the state. The militarys campaign history stretched over years and saw Roman armies campaigning as far east as Parthia, as far south as Africa and Aegyptus and as far north as Britannia.
The makeup of the Roman military changed substantially over its history, from its history as an unsalaried citizen militia to a later professional force. The equipment used by the military altered greatly in type over time, though there were very few improvements in weapons manufacture. For much of its history, the vast majority of Romes forces were maintained at or beyond the limits of its territory, in order to either expand Romes domain, or protect its existing borders.
Expansions were infrequent, as the emperors, adopting a strategy of fixed lines of defense, had determined to maintain existing borders, for that purpose they constructed extensive walls and created permanent stations that became cities. At its territorial height, the Roman Empire may have contained between 45 million and million people and this estimate probably included only legionary and auxiliary troops of the Roman army.
However, Gibbon states that it is not, easy to define the size of the Roman military with any tolerable accuracy. However, he notes that these figures were subject to inflation due to the practice of leaving dead soldiers on the books in order to continue to draw their wage High culture — The term high culture comprehends the cultural products of aesthetic value, which a society collectively esteem as art.
Eliot said that high culture and popular culture are necessary and complementary parts of the culture of a society. Harold Bloom and F. Leavis pursued the definition of high culture, history The high culture of the West originated in the Classical-world traditions of intellect and aesthetics in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.
In the Classical Greco-Roman tradition, the mode of language was published and preserved in works of elevated style. Certain forms of language used by authors in valorized epochs were held up in antiquity and this ideal associated with humanism, was communicated in Renaissance Italy through institutions such as the Renaissance court schools.
Renaissance humanism soon spread through Europe becoming much of the basis of upper class education for centuries, of comparable importance are those works of art and music considered to be of the highest excellence and broadest influence.
Together these texts and art works constitute the artefacts representative of the culture of the Western world. Cultural traditions In the Western and some East Asian traditions, art that demonstrates the imagination of the artist is accorded the status of high art, much of high culture consists of the appreciation of what is sometimes called High Art.
This term is broader than Arnolds definition and besides literature includes music, visual arts. The decorative arts would not generally be considered High Art, such an environment enables artists, as near as possible, to realize their creative potential with as few as possible practical and technical constraints. Art music is a term used to refer to musical traditions implying advanced structural and theoretical considerations.
In this regard, art music frequently occurs as a term to popular music. Art film is the result of filmmaking which is typically a serious, film critics and film studies scholars typically define an art film using a. According to the film scholar David Bordwell, art cinema itself is a film genre, there was a drive, beginning in the 19th century, to open museums and concert halls to give the general public access to high culture.
University liberal arts courses still play an important role in the promotion of the concept of high culture, organisations such as the Arts Council of Great Britain, and in most European countries, whole ministries administer these programmes.
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This includes the subsidy of new works by composers, writers, there are also many private philanthropic sources of funding, which are especially important in the US, where the federally funded Corporation for Public Broadcasting also funds broadcasting.
These may be seen as part of the concept of official culture According to Hyginus, Patroclus is the child of Menoetius and Philomela, Homer also references Menoetius as the individual who gave Patroclus to Peleus. His paternal grandparents were Aeolus of Thessaly and Enarete and his maternal grandparents were Xuthus and Creusa, daughter of Erechtheus and Praxithea.
During his childhood, Patroclus had killed another child in anger over a game, Menoetius gave Patroclus to Peleus, Achilles father, who named Patroclus one of Achilles henchmen as Patroclus and Achilles grew up together. Patroclus acted as a role model for Achilles, as he was both older than Achilles and wise regarding counsel.
According to the Iliad, when the tide of war had turned against the Greeks, Achilles consented, giving Patroclus the armor Achilles had received from his father, in order for Patroclus to impersonate Achilles.
Achilles then told Patroclus to return after beating the Trojans back from their ships, Patroclus defied Achilles order and pursued the Trojans back to the gates of Troy. Patroclus killed many Trojans, including a son of Zeus, Sarpedon, while battling, Patroclus wits were removed by Apollo, after which Patroclus was hit with the spear of Euphorbos. One could argue this point, which would hardly matter in any case except that P. This curious strategy yields some confusion and in fact puts P.
It might be said, in fact, that P. One gets the impression that while P. Perhaps the most provocative suggestion in this discussion is that the oddly exaggerated rage shown by both Amata over Aeneas as son-in-law and Aeneas over the death of Pallas has more to do with Republican and Augustan social ideology than scholarship has traditionally recognized. This idea could have been developed at greater length, and is a promising approach to a great deal in the second half of the poem.
He disagrees with those who see erotic connotations to Amata's behavior, and never acknowledges Putnam's important view that there is an erotic bond between Aeneas and Pallas. Erotic language may have many purposes, and ignoring its presence will obscure all of them. Furthermore, by attempting so vigorously to deny the erotic tone of these passages, P. He also fails to acknowledge an obvious possibility which would have strengthened his overall argument: Killing Turnus not only fulfills Aeneas' rage; it also insures that the one who has destroyed a people's hope for the future will not himself be part of that future.
Aeneas' son Iulus is the subject of chapter 5; this is the best chapter in the book largely because P. The neglected Iulus is a hard character to assess, and here P.
Iulus holds out the promise that the darkness of Troy's final night, a darkness P. Not only does he have his own aristeia, but he also leads the boys in the lusus Troiae. It is he who sponsors the fatal night mission of Nisus and Euryalus, and when Aeneas addresses him for the first and last time in the poem, he is adjured to be true to Aeneas and Hector, that is, to carry on the legacy of Troy as embodied in Aeneas and Hector. The promise of Iulus is precisely that he may not be true to the Trojan legacy after all, yet we see him locked safely away in a camp called Troia.
My only quibble here is that since P. One might argue that the ambiguous presentation of Iulus augurs for an uncertain, not necessarily a bleak future. The book's final chapter departs from the Aeneid and takes up the fourth Eclogue.
The puer and his miraculous life represent not a messiah but the cultural progress of the world itself. Childhood is a golden age, particularly in adult fantasy, and the bleak iron age is adulthood with its deceptions and disappointments. That the poem begins and ends on an optimistic note signals that the saeclorum The pattern of cultural growth and decay is the pattern of human life.
This provocative and useful study suffers from three general problems. The first, also one of the book's strengths, is its brevity. One constantly longs for fuller discussion of, inter alia, Catullan poetry generally, the role of Amata, the role of young women in the poem, and the death of Turnus.
The second is a problem endemic to the study of allusion: Both texts in an intertextual analysis require scrutiny; the model cannot simply be taken as a given. The third general weakness lies in the fact that P. It would have been helpful to have had a fuller exposition of his views than what the brief introductory chapter gives; as it is, P. None of these weaknesses should obscure the valuable contributions the book provides. Vergil's world view is dark, in fact, tragically bleak, but this does not necessarily translate into subversive political suspicion of the princeps and his goals.
Augustus, like all of us, is implicated in the same cyclic movement from the safety of childhood to the treacherous and disappointing night of adulthood. The failures of his program are the failures of the world; the darkness of Augustan Rome is intrinsic to history itself. Finally, by thoughtfully discussing coming of age in the Aeneid and fourth Eclogue, and by linking it to Catullus' similar conceptions of youth and adulthood, P.