Parent Child Relationship
Tensions are normative in the parent and adult child relationship, but there is little research on the topics that cause the most tension or whether tensions are. This page discusses the Parent Child Relationship and how and why the 'job' of Parents today are often confused and frequently struggle with what to do and. Description. Of the many different relationships people form over the course of the life span, the relationship between parent and child is among the most.
- Parent-Child Relationship In The Digital Era
- Parent-Child Relationship Problems
- Parent-child relationships
The digital native adolescent consumes approximately 12 hours of digital media per day in talking, texting and chatting with her various concentric circles of family, friends and acquaintances. Naturally, digital technology has become a predominant mode of communication within families and has undoubtedly extended the opportunities and increased frequency of interaction between the parent and adolescent.
The digital age has altered the heirarchial nature of conventional parent-child relationship into a form that is more equal, intimate, and egalitarian than it has been in the past.
Four integral features of digital communication have influenced the parent-child relationship in the past decade - Persistence: Interaction, which is the basis of relationships, can be pleasant or less than pleasant, and while the permanence of digital interaction may benefit pleasant interaction, unpleasant interactions, which are best when ephemeral, now have a permanent digital footprint.
This may or may not affect the parent child relationship. Technology, as some claim half in jest, is perpetually in beta stage. The high turnover rate of technology tools, and the ease with which the digital native adolescent adapts to it, leaves the parent often in a state of lag.
The communication gaps and mismatch can affect the parent-child relationship in subtle ways. This is, however, passe, and may be restrictred to merely one generation of parents who belonged to the era of digital revolution rather than assimilation.
When I was an adolescent, my social circle was well within the grasp of my parents because of geographic limits. The expanse of social media makes this more difficult. While mortification was limited in the past at being dropped by a mother at the movie theatre or such like, now the easy access to data and information can sway the relationship between child and parent. The electronic tether is, nevertheless, a double edged sword.
While it provides timely support to adolescents from parents and guardians, and an instant reassurance to the parent, it has been accused of stifling developmental progress through overreliance on parental and other guidance and helicopter parenting by the parent herself.
Yet another concern is a probable decline in time spent with one another. While the digital tools indeed allow possibility of better communication between the parent and the teen, it has been shown that joint media engagement drops off markedly for children who are six or older.
Thus it seems that parents and children must put in more conscious effort to spend more time together, either using the digital tools, or excluding them in order to keep the relationship smooth and updated. Children learn by watching other children; however, a firstborn or an only child, who has no example to watch, may not excel in other skills, such as toilet training, at an early age.
Infancy As babies are cared for by their parents, both parties develop understandings of the other. Gradually, babies begin to expect that their parent will care for them when they cry. Gradually, parents respond to and even anticipate their baby's needs. This exchange and familiarity create the basis for a developing relationship. Attachment is a sense of belonging to or connection with a particular other. This significant bond between infant and parent is critical to the infant's survival and development.
Started immediately after birth, attachment is strengthened by mutually satisfying interaction between the parents and the infant throughout the first months of life, called bonding.
By the end of the first year, most infants have formed an attachment relationship, usually with the primary caretaker. If parents can adapt to their babies, meet their needs, and provide nurturance, the attachment is secure.
Psychosocial development can continue based on a strong foundation of attachment. On the other hand, if a parent's personality and ability to cope with the infant's needs for care are minimal, the relationship is at risk and so is the infant's development. By six to seven months, strong feelings of attachment enable the infant to distinguish between caregivers and strangers. The infant displays an obvious preference for parents over other caregivers and other unfamiliar people. Anxietydemonstrated by crying, clinging, and turning away from the stranger, is revealed when separation occurs.
This behavior peaks between seven and nine months and again during toddlerhood, when separation may be difficult.
Although possibly stressful for the parents, stranger anxiety is a normal sign of healthy child attachment and occurs because of cognitive development. Most children develop a secure attachment when reunited with their caregiver after a temporary absence. In contrast, some children with an insecure attachment want to be held, but they are not comfortable; they kick or push away.
Others seem indifferent to the parent's return and ignore them when they return. The quality of the infant's attachment predicts later development. Youngsters who emerge from infancy with a secure attachment stand a better chance of developing happy and healthy relationships with others.
The attachment relationship not only forms the emotional basis for the continued development of the parent-child relationship, but can serve as a foundation for future social connections. Secure infants have parents who sensitively read their infant's cues and respond properly to their needs.
Toddlerhood When children move from infancy into toddlerhood, the parent-child relationship begins to change. During infancy, the primary role of the parent-child relationship is nurturing and predictability, and much of the relationship revolves around the day-to-day demands of caregiving: As youngsters begin to talk and become more mobile during the second and third years of life, however, parents usually try to shape their child's social behavior.
In essence, parents become teachers as well as nurturers, providers of guidance as well as affection. Socialization preparing the youngster to live as a member of a social group implicit during most of the first two years of life, becomes clear as the child moves toward his or her third birthday.
Socialization is an important part of the parent-child relationship. It includes various child-rearing practices, for example weaning, toilet training, and discipline. Dimensions of the parent-child relationship are linked to the child's psychological development, specifically how responsive the parents are, and how demanding they are. Responsive parents are warm and accepting toward their children, enjoying them and trying to see things from their perspective.
In contrast, nonresponsive parents are aloof, rejecting, or critical. They show little pleasure in their children and are often insensitive to their emotional needs. Some parents are demanding, while others are too tolerant.
Parent Child Relationship
Children's healthy psychological development is facilitated when the parents are both responsive and moderately demanding. During toddlerhood, children often begin to assert their need for autonomy by challenging their parents. Sometimes, the child's newfound assertiveness during the so-called terrible twos can put a strain on the parent-child relationship.
It is important that parents recognize that this behavior is normal for the toddler, and the healthy development of independence is promoted by a parent-child relationship that provides support for the child's developing sense of autonomy. In many regards, the security of the first attachment between infant and parent provides the child with the emotional base to begin exploring the world outside the parent-child relationship.
Preschool Various parenting styles evolve during the preschool years.
Preschoolers with authoritative parents are curious about new experiences, focused and skilled at playself-reliant, self-controlled, and cheerful.
School age During the elementary school years, the child becomes increasingly interested in peers, but this is not be a sign of disinterest in the parent-child relationship.
Rather, with the natural broadening of psychosocial and cognitive abilities, the child's social world expands to include more people and settings beyond the home environment. The parent-child relationship remains the most important influence on the child's development. Children whose parents are both responsive and demanding continue to thrive psychologically and socially during the middle childhood years. During the school years, the parent-child relationship continues to be influenced by the child and the parents.
In most families, patterns of interaction between parent and child are well established in the elementary school years. Adolescence As the child enters adolescencebiological, cognitive, and emotional changes transform the parent-child relationship. The child's urges for independence may challenge parents' authority. Many parents find early adolescence a difficult period. Adolescents fare best and their parents are happiest when parents can be both encouraging and accepting of the child's needs for more psychological independence.
Although the value of peer relations grows during adolescence, the parent-child relationship remains crucial for the child's psychological development. Authoritative parenting that combines warmth and firmness has the most positive impact on the youngster's development. Adolescents who have been reared authoritatively continue to show more success in school, better psychological development, and fewer behavior problems.
Parent-Child Relationships - baby, Definition, Description
Adolescence may be a time of heightened bickering and diminished closeness in the parent-child relationship, but most disagreements between parents and young teenagers are over less important matters, and most teenagers and parents agree on the essentials. By late adolescence most children report feeling as close to their parents as they did during elementary school. Parenting styles Parenting has four main styles: Although no parent is consistent in all situations, parents do follow some general tendencies in their approach to childrearing, and it is possible to describe a parent-child relationship by the prevailing style of parenting.
These descriptions provide guidelines for both professionals and parents interested in understanding how variations in the parent-child relationship affect the child's development.
Parenting style is shaped by the parent's developmental history, education, and personality; the child's behavior; and the immediate and broader context of the parent's life. Also, the parent's behavior is influenced by the parent's work, the parents' marriage, family finances, and other conditions likely to affect the parent's behavior and psychological well-being.
In addition, parents in different cultures, from different social classes, and from different ethnic groups rear their children differently. In any event, children's behavior and psychological development are linked to the parenting style with which they are raised. Authoritarian parents Authoritarian parents are rigid in their rules; they expect absolute obedience from the child without any questioning.
They also expect the child to accept the family beliefs and principles without questions. Authoritarian parents are strict disciplinarians, often relying on physical punishment and the withdrawal of affection to shape their child's behavior. Children raised with this parenting style are often moody, unhappy, fearful, and irritable.
They tend to be shy, withdrawn, and lack self-confidence.