EthicsGame | Ethical Lens Inventory Personal Values and Ethics Education
Right/Responsibilities, result, reputation, relationship lens. Each of the ethical lenses has both vices (deliberate actions making an unethical choice) and risks. when analyzing and addressing situations & relationships. Now is your opportunity to explore from your perspectives and values, through what ethical lens you. Special Issue theme: “Linking Corporate Reputation and Accountability: Which theoretical lenses explain the opportunities, risks, paradoxes, How does accountability change the relationship between reputation and.
Current research supports a historical trend of associating public relations with all things unethical — lying, spin-doctoring, and even espionage.
Many critics argue that there can be no ethical public relations because the practice itself is akin to manipulation and propaganda. Groups like the Center for Public Integrity http: Other groups like Corporate Watch http: Adding fuel to the fire are the actions of some public relations firms themselves.
News broke later that the Kuwaiti government sponsored this front group in order to convince the US to enter the Gulf War. Is ethical public relations even possible? Evolution of Public Relations Ethics In the US, early public relations practices introduced many ethical concerns because the press agentry J.
Press agents were concerned with generating publicity at almost any cost, and this approach engendered the unethical reputation of modern-day public relations.
One of the earliest public relations executives to argue for the role of acting as an ethical counsel to management was John W. Hill had a very developed philosophy of corporate responsibility and issue management, and this recent analysis found that ethics pervaded both his work as executive counsel and his books about public relations Hill, As the civil unrest of the s called both government and businesses to a higher level of accountability, their communication functions responded with the creation of more open, ethical, and socially responsible forms of public relations.
The function of issues management Chase, began to advise executives on ethically responsible policy decisions, and symmetrical public relations J. This interest in teaching and discussing public relations ethics is good news, especially for new practitioners so that they do not inadvertently limit their prospects for promotion.
As newer data discussed below reveals, job promotion options may be constrained for practitioners who do not know ethics or feel prepared to advise on ethical dilemmas. Like any young profession, the historical development of public relations shows a progression toward more self-aware and ethical models of communication. By reviewing this development, the historically negative reputation of public relations, as well as its potential for encouraging ethical communication, we can see the maturation of the profession from one engaged in simple dissemination of information to one involved in the creation of ethical communication.
Current State of Ethics in Public Relations: Codes of Ethics The current state of ethics in public relations practice depends heavily on codes of ethics held by the major professional associations. Membership in these groups is voluntary, meaning that one is not required to belong to such an association in order to practice public relations.
Members agree to abide by a code of ethics that is written for the entire group. Some codes of ethics are written in terms that forbid a list of certain activities; other codes of ethics espouse a set of ethical principles which should be followed. Whether written in positive or negative terms, most of the professional associations in public relations have a code of ethics.
For example, refer to the ethics codes of a few of the major public relations associations: These codes of ethics offered as examples above do not vary greatly by country but by the professional organization; some codes strive to offer guidance of a practical, professional nature toward agency practitioners such as PRSAwhile other codes attempt to identify general moral principles of ethical behavior, such as the focus on dignity, respect, and human rights, as seen in the IPRA and CERP endorsements of the Code of Athens.
Professions often develop codes of ethics, and an online collection of more than can be found at the Illinois Institute of Technology http: That resource is a wonderful place to start if you are beginning to write or revise a code of ethics for your organization or a client.
When implemented with good intent, codes of ethics can be useful tools for developing an organizational culture supporting ethical decision making. Public relations codes of ethics generally hold as cross-cultural and universal moral principles the concepts of honesty, fairness, and not harming others http: Although codes of ethics can be developed which satisfy universal conditions or principles Kruckeberg,they have been critiqued by scholars Parkinson, ; Wright, for falling short of the ideals espoused in the codes, or even in being internally contradictory.
Practitioners often state that codes of ethics are too vague to be useful in their own careers or that they do not give enough specific guidance to be anything other than rudimentary Bowen et al.
Research found that some practitioners say they see a code of ethics once and then do not refer to it or read it again Bowen, a. Most codes of ethics provide no enforcement monitoring or recourse for their infringement, leaving them impotent other than the occasional revocation of association membership.
These problems with codes of ethics are not new and they are not limited to the field of public relations. Some scholars Kruckeberg, of public relations argue that if practitioners are ethical then no enforcement is needed for the codes of ethics. Other scholars Bowen, a; Parkinson, go further, arguing that a simple ethics statement is all that is necessary because good intention is a more stringent guideline than a code of ethics.
This debate mirrors the rationale of Plato, as quoted in Parsons Given the criticisms against codes of ethics, public relations scholars have worked to create other methods of understanding, analyzing, and managing ethical dilemmas. These approaches are based on varying schools of thought from philosophy to sociology.
Findings of Current Research on Public Relations Ethics Suspicion of corporations, corporate executives, and a general mistrust of business in the minds of the public grew in two waves. As thousands of former-Enron employees lost their retirement funds in the collapse, Enron executives maintained in the news media that they had done nothing wrong. The shockwaves following Enron, and other scandals of this period such as Tyco and WorldCom, resulted in new demands for ethical responsibility and corporate governance.
One result was the implementation of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act http: From these cases and the new legislation, a renewed concern for corporate ethics, compliance, regulation, governance, transparency, and honest financial reporting procedures resulted.
Many of these issues are the domain of the public relations function, and all of them are communicated about by the public relations function. The study Bowen et al.
This finding is good news that public relations managers are involved in ethical advising at the highest levels of their organizations, and often are involved in the strategic management and planning process, as well. Reporting directly to the CEO is the best possible case because the top communicator does not have to rely on others to convey their advice and perspective to the CEO, who is the final decision maker.
These numbers mean that public relations professionals are being heard at the highest levels of organizations, and are having input at the strategic management and planning level. Public relations professionals can have a real impact on organizational decision making and a real impact on the ethical decisions made in the C-suite. To use the words of one public relations executive in this study Bowen et al.
To advise the top level of an organization, professional communicators must become conversant with issues management, risk and crisis management, leadership, organizational culture and policy, and ethics. Decisions at the higher levels of the organizational system almost invariably include an ethical component. Do the benefits outweigh the risks if we take a product with a mixed safety record to market?
Should we do business in countries where bribery or child labor is a common practice? From matters of external publics and multinational relationships to product standards or internal relationships with employee publics—all pose ethical challenges. These challenges are matters not only of policy but also of communication. IABC grant research Bowen et al. These practitioners are implementing the strategic decisions of others rather than making their own contributions in the areas of organization strategy, issues management, or — on ethics.
Public relations cannot contribute to organizational effectiveness without offering input on the views of strategic publics to executive management—nor can it advise on the ethical issues and dilemmas that stand to damage organization-public relationships, diminish credibility, and tarnish reputation. Counseling senior management on ethical decisions is happening in practice, and perhaps more widely than one might estimate.
Forward-thinking organizations are already implementing this strategy, so that public relations professionals who aspire to higher management roles must now pay attention to ethics, ethical advisement, and how to analyze ethical dilemmas.
Ethics Study and Training: The majority of participants reported that they had little if any academic training or study of ethics. Practitioners who advise on ethics reported that what they have learned about ethical issues comes from professional experience rather than academic study.
Professional experience with ethics has to be earned over time, and younger practitioners are at a disadvantage when faced with a dilemma, often having little prior experience with such situations.
These professionals might make mistakes even with the best of intentions due to unforeseen consequences or duties. Using one of the rigorous, analytical means of ethical analysis available in moral philosophy allows decisions to be articulated to the media and others in defensible terms. Further, those who had no ethics study could be unintentionally limiting their career opportunities or their suitability to be promoted into senior management. The qualitative data in this study revealed that practitioners saw advising on ethical dilemmas as a main route to higher levels of responsibility within their organizations.
IABC Research Foundation The finding that little or no ethics training or study is held by public relations practitioners with a university education is not a new concern. The Commission on Public Relations Education, a group of experts who periodically examine public relations curricula and recommend modifications, recognized the dearth of ethics study in their report see: The group recommended the following actions at universities and colleges offering courses or majors in public relations: A consideration of ethics should pervade all content of public relations professional education.
If a curriculum cannot accommodate a dedicated ethics course, short one-hour courses or mini-seminars can provide a meaningful ethics forum for undergraduates. Public relations professionals need both experience managing ethical issues and academic study of ethics. Studying ethics helps practitioners to advance professionally and to make defensible judgments in the eyes of publics. Not preparing young practitioners to deal with ethics disadvantages them in their career aspirations and harms the reputation of the public relations profession itself.
In the IABC study, participants reported little on-the-job ethics training, professional seminars, or continuing education workshops. The deficit in communication professionals who are thoroughly versed in ethics may pose potential problems. Filling a necessary demand based on professional experience alone leaves the communication professional open to failures to reasoning or oversights in analysis which could be guarded against through formal ethics training or study.
Those who do not have training in ethical decision making may be unfamiliar with alternate modes of analyses that could yield valuable input into the strategic decision-making process.
Ethical Lens Inventory
A lack of credibility results both for individual communication professionals and for the public relations practice itself. Errors of omission in the analysis of an ethical dilemma result from a lack of training rather than a lack of ethical intention on the part of public relation counsel. Logical and consistent analyses allow a defensible argument to be made and the media or publics can understand the decision-making process of the organization.
Rational decisions are easier to explain and defend to publics, and although they may not agree they can usually understand. Therefore, attention to astute and rigorous ethical analysis is essential not only for individual practitioners or the public relations profession but also for organizational effectiveness in achieving long-term financial success.
Pushing the Frontiers in Public Relations Ethics To answer the demand for ethics training from the professional front, training in ethical decision making is being offered by some employers, universities, and professional associations. Only recently have public relations scholars incorporated a substantial amount of moral philosophy into the body of knowledge we know as communication. The inclusion of this scholarly literature in our own field can powerfully extend the ethical reasoning capabilities of public relations professionals.
These approaches, which are reviewed below, offer substantive ethical guidelines for analyzing dilemmas. Dialogical Ethics versus Advocacy Ethics Dialogue as a philosophy began in ancient Greece, with the classical argumentation of philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates.
First is the service suite i. Second is the environment and culture which comprises of the external environment approach towards work and size of the firm.
Third is integrity which is basically to deliver your commitments and last is performance of the management which is the most important in this process [ 9 ]. Hence, employer brand gives an edge. It was derived from a research that there is one determinant i. Strategically Pakistani organizations are utilizing their employer brand to build their overall corporate reputation which will help them in managing talent and will eventually help in the growth and prosperity of the organization.
Problem statement In Armstrong research has revealed that the talent pool is shrinking globally and what talent management decision and conclusion should be made are uncertain and unsure by the organization. The connection and relation between employer brand and the attraction and retention of talent has been proves by research evidence [ 11 ], However, In claims by Minchington that many organizations are not developing or maintaining their employer brand appropriately, and talent shortages can render organizations vulnerable in terms of competitive sustainability [ 1213 ].
The problems that are faced by the organization due to shrinking talent pool of applicant are qualified applicant prefer one organization over other and applicant intention to apply in employer branded organization refuse many opportunities of job offers. Literature Review For any organization granted with all financial, economic and strategic support with latest and up to dated technologies but the major driving force for any organization which lead them from one step of success to another step is only due to its workforce.
The Four Lenses Strategic Framework
Attract best and talented workforce by the organization is only possible, when it has positive image as an employer. Therefore intention to apply for the job and decision of job choice by applicant are only possible due to organization image and employer branding. This question always rises in the mind of every employer, why candidates are more concerned and attracted towards a particular organization? Job application attitude and job application intention have positive and significant relationship with perception of person job fit organization [ 16 ].
Hence organization familiarity in the eye of applicants play a vital role in the rating of employer and due to that organization which is more familiar to candidate are rated as top attractive employers and more likely to have strong and positive image in the market [ 17 ]. The size and quality of organization applicant pool or applicant database are influence by the organization reputation and organization image [ 18 ]. Therefore corporate image is symbolization of information available to applicants and which serve as a link to attract potential and talented job seeker towards the organization.
According to Collins and Stevens [ 19 ], explain that in starting the organization image create charm and this charm influence the decision to apply for the job held by potential and talented applicants, whereas it can be said that image create attraction which finally prove an positive effect on applicant intention to apply for the job in a particular organization.
The purpose of my research was to explore employer branding importance in the culture of Pakistan in the comparison and assessment with world. Organizations of Pakistan are now starting focusing on employer branding concept because this concept of reputation perception has now gained recognition among the practicing HR manager [ 20 ].
Currently organizations are facing severe competition in the market and to win this competition organization start adopting different strategies, main focus are on paying attention on the name of the company along with corporate culture. Hence organization can only win the war of talent if they have good and positive corporate image in the market along with potential, talented and qualified resource in face of employees.
The model depicts those job seekers perception about organizational reputation is a function of organization reputation and image, recruitment advertisements and familiarity of the organization Figure 1.
Job seekers reputation perception.
Job seekers value reputation in two contexts: To make assumption about the quality of attributes of job because these assumption are difficult to learn earlier than the job acceptance. According to the model it is not possible for the job seekers to acquire substantial knowledge and information about the job attributes and the prevailing organizational culture before starting the job, therefore the decision of short listing the organizations to apply for, becomes difficult in the initial phases of the employment i.
Therefore a job seeker tends to use organization image and reputation as a green signal about attributes of the job of the organization. On the other hand no one would like to be associated with the organization having a negative image or reputation.
To be associated with the reputed organization job seeker are enthusiastic and willing to pay a premium which is in the form of minimum salary [ 23 ] Figure 2. Illustration of the relationship between a unique and attractive employer brand and the brand related behaviour of employees, as seen through the lens of SIA.
Using the model as the theoretical framework will be studied to what extend websites influence applicants to apply for the job.
Research Objective To find out recruitment outcomes which are influence by reputation perception and the relationship between reputation perceptions and job-pursuit intentions, the objective of this research focus on: Research question What organizational attributes develop an effective response on potential applicants which leads intention to apply?
What is the relationship between overall attractiveness of employer brand image and the applicant intention to apply? Why organization reputation matter the job seeker decision at initial phase of employment? Research methodology The main reason of this chapter is to implement the most accurate and appropriate methodology for the research. Research methodology and method Research Methodology is a combination of tools and techniques that are used to gather data for a particular research [ 24 ].
It helps in studying a subject in depth and assist in making important decisions during the whole research ibid. The two research methodologies i. Qualitative and quantitative are that can be used depending on the type of research being conducted, Frankel and Devers [ 25 ].
The methodology that I have adopted for my research is Quantitative. Quantitative Research can be described as the research that involves the calculations and measurement of things while Qualitative Research is the research type that focuses on concepts, meanings, characteristics, symbols and description of things [ 26 ].
The reason for adopting quantitative research method is because its depend upon numerical data representation and this research methods aims to explore the observations derived from the participants and further these observation analysed to reach conclusion what actually those observations are trying to represent.
As according to Creswell, has concisely defined quantitative research is based on numerical results derived from the participants and further explains the logic of those numerical results. This research are of several types, for instance categories as research survey, research based on correlation and relation, experimental based research and research based on casual and comparative.
In my research questionnaire will be considered as potential method and reason for selecting this method will be discussed further. Questionnaire Questionnaire is a core technique for my research and it is consider as most common method of quantitative research. A questionnaire is a collection of structured investigation questions that are constructed and designed in such a manner that assist in collection of responses from the respondents.
The overriding objective of questionnaire is that it translates the researcher need of information into a set of questions that the respondents are willing and able to answer. There are many ways in which structure of questionnaire can be designed because there are many types of questionnaire like Unstructured and structured questionnaire. Unstructured questionnaire which are open-ended questions and it allow the respondent to express their opinions without any restricting and responses based on their own opinions.
Whereas structured questionnaire is close-ended questions which specify the set of response as their format.
Ethics and Public Relations
A structured question may offer multiple-choices, or a scale. The questionnaire which will I used in my research will be structured questionnaire and Likert scale will be the measurable instrument. Likert scale are based upon agree- disagress approach through which attitude of respondents will be measured.