cognitive processes of translation and interpreting (either consecutive or repetition, these processes of language mediation are extremely complex, since . Seleskovitch (), maintain that in the phase of reformulation the processes of . propositions; d) the creation of a relationship between them; e) the creation of a. and signed language interpreting, and cognitive psychology, I have developed .. relationship between intelligence and cognitive capacities is .. Seleskovitch. Language, Cognition, and the Goals of Cognitive Relationships between language and cognition. In B. The Source–Target relationship is asymmetric.
It has to do with words. Cognition is how we think, what we think, and why we think. It has to do with our thoughts. When we create our thoughts inside our heads we do so using words. Before we learned words as infants, we still had thoughts To add when the mind makes a generalization such as the concept of tree, it extracts similarities from numerous examples; the simplification enables higher-level thinking. While few people would deny that cognitive processes are a function of the brain, a cognitive theory will not necessarily make reference to the brain or other biological process.
It may purely describe behavior in terms of information flow or function. Relatively recent fields of study such as cognitive science and neuropsychology aim to bridge this gap, using cognitive paradigms to understand how the brain implements these information-processing functions or how pure information-processing systems e.
Cognitivist positions see language development as the consequence of more general cognitive mechanisms, which are themselves determined by biologically pre-programmed processes. With respect to initial equipment, then, cognitivist models postulate a general cognitive capacity allowing the infant to construct a gradually more complex representation of the world as a result of underlying endogenous processes.
For example, they use path particles in English, e. Mary Whiton Calkins — was an influential American female pioneer in the realm of psychology. Her work also focused on the human memory capacity. A common theory, called the Recency effect, can be attributed to the studies that she conducted. The recency effect, also discussed in the subsequent experiment section, is the tendency for individuals to be able to accurately recollect the final items presented in a sequence of stimuli.
Her theory is closely related to the aforementioned study and conclusion of the memory experiments conducted by Herman Ebbinghaus. Herman Ebbinghaus — conducted cognitive studies that mainly examined the function and capacity of human memory.
Ebbinghaus developed his own experiment in which he constructed over 2, syllables made out of nonexistent words, for instance EAS.
He then examined his own personal ability to learn these non-words. He purposely chose non-words as opposed to real words to control for the influence of pre-existing experience on what the words might symbolize, thus enabling easier recollection of them. Ebbinghaus observed and hypothesized a number of variables that may have affected his ability to learn and recall the non- words he created.
One of the reasons, he concluded, was the amount of time between the presentation of the list of stimuli and the clarification needed. His work heavily influenced the study of serial position and its effect on memory, discussed in subsequent sections.
Part of language development is the development of abstract thinking. It is believed that children, infants actually, learn to ascribe the term "dog" for example at first to all animals, but as time goes on, they develop a concept of "dog" as a class of animal.
Over time we use language as part of our thinking. Situational context had to be sacrificed, however: This artificial situation, and the subjects' fear of being recorded, are blamed for some 'atypical' notetaking behaviour — too many notes, and sticking too close to the original.
The renditions are all faster but wordier than the original, varying as to concision; performance was poorer on the highly redundant second speech. There are a few important caveats in approaching an interpreting corpus. Oral material cannot be judged as written text, so readers are invited to 'read with their ears' to hear the prosody.
Also, in comparing notes and renditions we must remember that the interpreter takes notes without look-ahead at the first pass, but has heard the whole speech by the time she returns to them, which 'illuminates' the notes and allows cohesive rephrasing and elimination of redundancy.
Seleskovitch expected to find a more or less uniform system of consecutive note- taking with slight differences in the symbols used.
Instead, the notes were extremely variable between subjects, and meaningless without insight into the accompanying mental activity. The core observations are summarized in chapter 2, with examples from a passage about the extended family in Africa.
They concern the relationship between the input speech, the interpreters' notes and their subsequent productions, and the form of the notes: These items, she says, have more or less stable meanings which are transposable between language codes. Memory for such items can't be supported by context — they can neither be predicted, nor reconstructed after their acoustic trace has faded — so they must be noted immediately. With numbers, the signifier always has the same signified.
Names designate a precise referent independently of context. Lists are only half embedded in the context; they have no syntactic structure, and subjects say they 'do not involve reasoning': Technical terms are those whose use is limited to a specific group of speakers and which context-independently designate a clearly defined notion.
Their translation often requires a knowledge of the object; etymology is often irrelevant due to neologisms and technical extensions of the ordinary meanings of words. Paraphrase is possible when the sense of an expression is clear but the terms are unknown, but not the other way round pp.
relationship between Language and cognition | Alexander McJay - relax-sakura.info
In the now famous currant-bun analogy la brioche aux raisins, pp. Items with context-independent meanings, like the raisins in the bun, emerge in recognisable form while the 'dough' is thoroughly transformed. Language is 'chimie pour le sens et physique pour les formes' p. Seleskovitch is fascinated by polysemy and the meaning emerging from word combinations. Words are clumps of features traits de signification which don't match across languages, calling for a three-step process in which the referent must be identified before the right word can be chosen in TL.
Componential linguistic analysis does not reveal the meanings of words: Translation is not so much 'literal' vs. The 'dough' of the discourse is much harder to follow through notes to the final rendition than the raisins. Note-taking and expression vary enormously and seem to defy generalisation. The 'extended family' example, containing words with no obvious French equivalents like nexus or sibling, is all too well chosen to show how the meaning of an 4 SL word may be spread through a whole sentence in TL 69 ff.
Firstly, the formal independence of the three corpora — SL speech, notes, TL speech — points to an intermediate stage of 'deverbalisation' between source language comprehension and target language formulation.
Secondly, knowledge plays a critical role: Linguistic and cognitive processing are assigned to different kinds of memory, for words and for sense, between which the interpreter must constantly shuttle un va-et-vient constant concept- parole-concept, p. This 'pendulum' model was later to be developed for simultaneous interpretation Lederer Various phenomena are thus explained: Seleskovitch here appears to speculate quite boldly, and it is easy to see how conservative readers might be sceptical.
She fleshes out her analysis with impressions and convictions from personal experience renditions are more fluent when fewer notes are takenand the occasional normative comment literal, text-bound translation results from wrongly abusivement noting words instead of ideas. It is clear by now why shorthand and other ready-made codes won't work, but Seleskovitch offers a speech-processing explanation: Notes are necessary because more information is new to the interpreter than to the audience, and she needs to retain everything, unlike ordinary casual or initiated listeners or those with other goals, such as preparing their own speech or drafting a report.
But consecutive notes cannot be a semiotic system or code with fixed signifier- signified correspondences, since old notes are nothing but an empty shell. Notes are syncretic, in contrast to language, which is analytic: Some interpreters hardly look at their notes at all during production, suggesting that another purpose of note-taking has already been served: Consecutive relies on episodic memory — now known to be reconstruction fleshed out with intervening experience — in which the act of note- taking primes the later recovery of the comprehension episodes; the interpreter 'recreates an experience, like an artist'.
Chapter III explores the form and raw material of the notes themselves. Most notes are abbreviated words from one of the two languages, though with extreme individual variation in preferences for TL or SL. These are mostly used for high- frequency items like must, want, be able, or 'A' for Africa in this speech; there is no abbreviation for 'chicken'. Most interpreters also use symbols, borrowed from various sign systems and languages, for common items like programme, meeting, solution.
Some use onomatopeias, or simple pictures Seleskovitch surmises without reference to other work that we have three types of memory, working either separately or together, for sounds, semantic meanings significations and sense, each with a perceptive and an interpretive facet: The first two memories use the closed correspondence systems of phonological and semantic language competence.