Southern Africa - European and African interaction in the 19th century | relax-sakura.info
Twin parallel rift valleys that are part of the East African Rift System run through the region. Most of the peoples of Eritrea and Ethiopia—and some of those in Tanzania . Such trade goods as they obtained from the interior were apparently bought . Individual Portuguese traders often developed excellent relations with . The states that emerged in West Africa between and shared what characteristic? Swahili civilization's relationship with the people who lived in the interior? Swahili cities operated as intermediaries for people from the interior to sell. He claims that the East African slave trade had been continuous and massive since antiquity on the coast and began trading in the interior.
People are generally addressed by their academic, professional or honorific title followed by their surname. Once a personal relationship has developed, you may be able to address a person by their title and first name, first name alone, or nickname. Wait for the Kenyan to determine that your friendship has reached this level of intimacy.
Children generally refer to adults as Aunt or Uncle, even if there is not a familial relationship. Gifts need not be expensive. In fact, practical gifts are preferred. Kenya is a poor country and a gift of something that the person cannot generally afford is always welcome.
It is customary to give small gifts to servants, trades people, and service workers at Christmas. In rural areas, gifts of sugar or tea are quite common. Gifts should be nicely wrapped, although there are no prohibitions concerning the colour of paper.
Do not bring alcohol unless you know that your host drinks. Gifts should be given using the right hand only or both hands. Never use the left hand. Dining Etiquette Kenyans table manners are relatively formal. Dining patterns vary tremendously according to ethnicity, location and socio-economic position of the host. The best course of action is to behave formally. When is doubt, watch what others are doing and follow their lead. Except for formal functions, there is generally not a seating plan.
However, there may be a special place for the most honoured guest. Guests are expected to wash their hands before and after the meal. In some homes, a washing basin will be brought to the table. If so, hold your hands over the basin while water is poured over them. The honoured guest is usually served first, followed by the men, children, and women. Servants often bring the courses to individual guests who are expected to take what they want.
Do not begin eating until the eldest male has been served and started eating. It is a good idea to take a small amount the first time the platters are brought so that you may take second helpings when urged. Beverages are not generally served with meals since Kenyans think it is impolite to eat and drink at the same time.
They are generally served at the completion of the meal. It is considered polite to finish everything on your plate, although it is not mandatory.
Kenyans will always attempt to qualify what they say so that the message is delivered in a sensitive way. If the relationship is intimate the communication style will become more direct. For newly established and more formal relationships, diplomacy will be of utmost importance. In their attempt not to cause problems, Kenyans often use metaphors, analogies and stories to make a point.
They are uncomfortable with blunt statements. If you are from a culture that prizes directness, you may wish to moderate your delivery style. It is also up to you to read between the lines and decipher what may really being said. With this in mind, criticism should be delivered in private and given in a circumspect manner. Kenyans may gesture for emphasis when speaking. Loud voices are generally only used during disagreements in business situations, although in rural areas, louder speaking tones are the norm.
African societies and the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade (article) | Khan Academy
Showing anger is considered a sign of mental instability. Kenyans pride themselves on their emotional control and expect the same in others. Since maintaining honor and dignity are paramount, Kenyans may offer what they believe is the expected response rather than say something that might embarrass the other person. They often go out of their way to keep from doing something that could bring shame to another person.
They expect business colleagues and superiors to inquire about their family before beginning a business discussion. The relationships that the Ndebele established with groups beyond their immediate settlement ranged from friendly alliances to the regular exaction of tribute and random raiding.
The Kololo Yet another group dislodged by the warfare of this time, the composite Sotho group known as the Kololo, made its mark in west-central Africa. Defeated in warfare among the western Tswana, about Sebetwane led his followers across the Zambezi into northwestern Zambia.
There they conquered the Lozi kingdom, which had been built up in the 18th century, and then dominated western Zambia. The Kololo triumph was short-lived, however; by the ravages of malaria, the accession of a weak and diseased king, and the revival of Lozi royal fortunes put an end to their hegemony.
Nevertheless, a variant of Sotho is still the language of the region. British development of the Cape Colony Britain occupied the Cape Colony at the turn of the 19th century. During the Napoleonic Wars the Cape passed first to the British —then to the Batavian Republic —06and to the British again in The displacement of Dutch East India Company rule by an imperial state in the early stages of its industrial revolution greatly expanded local opportunities for trade and increased demands for labour, just as the slave trade was abolished in the British Empire.
It was initially a crown colony governed by an autocratic governor, whose more extreme powers were modified by the presence in Cape Town of an articulate middle class and by the arrival in of some 5, British settlers. These groups demanded a free press, an independent legal system, the rooting out of corruption, and more representative institutions.
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Changes in the status of Africans In the Cape gained full responsible government. The colour-blind franchise was retained but came under increasing attack.
As a strategy for incorporating the more prosperous black peasants and artisans, it had been supported by white merchants, professionals, and officials. With the annexation of African territories and the creation of a mass black working class, however, it proved vulnerableand in and the franchise qualifications were changed in order to restrict the number of black voters.
Initially, imperial protection expanded Cape wheat and wine production, while the British did little to alter existing social and property relations. Despite their formal equality before the law, however, newly emancipated slaves received only modest protection, from the handful of mission stations, against exploitative and often brutal conditions.
Although the underclass received only limited benefits, the British land and labour policies—together with a restructuring of local government—threatened many Afrikaners. Their exodus was to become the central saga of 20th-century Afrikaner nationalism. Beyond the confines of the colony, they established separate republics in Natal, the Orange Free State, and the Transvaal, outflanking the Xhosa along the southeast coast, where the British were confronted by a series of interlocking crises.
Continuing settler- Xhosa wars The first of these crises had erupted in shortly after the British first occupied the Cape.
This was the third war between settlers and Xhosa in the Zuurveld and coincided with a mass uprising of Khoisan in Graaff-Reinet. Although peace was restored inthe Xhosa remained in the Zuurveld until British troops drove them east of the Great Fish River in —12; subsequent near-constant skirmishing again exploded into war in —l9, —35, and l For most of the century the Cape was dependent on British troops for its defense and for the further conquest of African territory.
By mid century the western Xhosa were formidable foes who used firearms and adopted guerrilla tactics. Thus, the eighth war —53 was the most drawn-out and costly of all. In the end, it was not British arms or settler prowess that defeated the Xhosa but internal tensions resulting from the activities of white traders, missionaries, and settlers. These pressures were increased by the confiscation of Xhosa land and cattle, the apportionment after each war of captives as labour to settlers, the arrival of refugees from wars beyond their frontiers, and the expansion of commercial sheep farming, which was the most important sector of the Cape economy by the s.
In the internally divided Xhosa, exhausted by years of attritionin the midst of severe drought and cattle disease, and undermined by the aggressive policies of the British governor Sir George Greyturned to millenarian prophecies.
They slaughtered their cattle and destroyed their crops in the belief that doing so would raise their ancestors from their graves and drive the whites into the sea. When the awaited salvation failed to materialize, some 30,—40, Xhosa streamed across the frontier to seek work in the colony. An equal number died of starvation. Although Xhosa farther east fought the colonists again in andthe slaughter of the cattle marked the end of Xhosa political and economic integrity.
Thereafter the annexation of the remaining African territories proceeded peacefully, if piecemeal. The last of the independent kingdoms to pass into Cape hands was Pondolandin Growth of missionary activity From the end of the 18th century, European missionaries were crucial in the transformation of African society at the Cape. With Christianity came Victorian notions of civilization and progress. Progress meant that Africans produced agricultural products for export and entered into the labour market.
The first converts in the Cape were the Khoisan, in the east and north, and the Griqua, who by the s had formed a series of independent if schismatic states in the Vaal-Orange confluence.
The neighbouring Sotho-Tswana communities were also early sites of missionary activity. The most notable of the Tswana converts were the Ngwatounder the king Khama III reigned —who established a virtual theocracy among his people and was perhaps the most acclaimed Christian convert of his day, while in the eastern Cape the Mfengu were in the forefront of mission activity and peasant enterprise.
In the second half of the 19th century, increasing numbers of Xhosa also turned to Christianity.
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In Zululand and on the Highveld the missionaries both preceded and paved the way for white settlers and were sometimes their fiercest critics. Initially Christianity tended to advance most rapidly among the disaffected and dispossessed, and especially among women, with those who depended on the slave trade less enthusiastic. It was usually only after a major disaster undermined their belief systems that considerable numbers of men turned to the new religion.
By inculcating individualism and encouraging the stratification that was to lead so many of their converts onto the colonial labour markets, the missionaries attacked much that was central to African society and developed an ideology to accompany colonial subordination.
The first European missionaries to south-central Africa, inspired by Livingstone, set up their Universities Mission in In the Free Church of Scotland established the Livingstonia Mission in his memory, while the established Church of Scotland began work among the Yao at Blantyre the following year.
From Lake Nyasa the Scottish missions spread inland to northeastern Zambia and were followed by a large number of representatives of other Christian denominations in the last decades of the century. By the last quarter of the 19th century, European missionaries and African evangelists of almost every denomination were working among the peoples of Southern Africa, eroding chiefly authority and inculcating the new values and practices of the colonial world but also bringing new modes of resistance and educating many Christian Africans who later became outspoken critics of colonialism.
The expansion of white settlement If the expansion of white settlement under the British led to a vast expropriation of African land and labour, it also led to a rapid expansion of unequal trading relations. Black-white exchange existed in the frontier zone from the early 18th century. The Republic of Natalia and the British colony of Natal The establishment of trekker republics in Natal and on the Highveld greatly expanded the frontiers of white settlement.
The Voortrekkershowever, did not display any sense of national unity, and the parties soon fell out and set off in different directions. The trekkers enjoyed some spectacular successes as a result of their firearms, horses, and use of ox-wagons to form laagers protected encampmentsas well as their strategic alliances with African chiefdoms; they found it far more difficult to establish permanent hegemony over the region.
Victory over the Zulu at the Battle of Blood River on December 16,and divisions in the Zulu kingdom enabled the establishment of the short-lived Republic of Natalia, bounded to the north by the still-powerful Zulu kingdom and to the south by the Mpondo.
Inhowever, the British, anxious to control the sea route to India, fearful of trekker negotiations with foreign powers, and concerned that trekker raids would spread to the eastern frontier, annexed Natal, leaving the Zulu kingdom north of the Tugela River independent until its disintegration in the civil wars that followed its defeat by the British army in For most of the 19th century, British Natal was surrounded by powerful African states and was heavily outnumbered by Africans within the colony.
Constitutional development in Natal was slower and more erratic than in the Cape; colonists received responsible government only in Unlike the Cape, Natal never had a viable nonracial franchise: Absentee landowners bought up land claimed and vacated by the Voortrekkers and extracted rent from African producers, hoping increased white immigration would raise land prices.
Like the weak colonial administration, the absentees were anxious to avoid the conflict that would have resulted from the expropriation of land occupied by Africans demanded by smaller settler-farmers. When in sugar was exploited successfully for the first time, indentured labour had to be brought from India to do the arduous work, because Africans—many of whom still had their own land and cattle—refused to work for the low wages offered on the plantations.
By the last decades of the 19th century, however, a land shortage and high taxes had forced large numbers of Africans to seek work in colonial labour markets. Voortrekker republics in the interior With the British annexation of Natal, most of the Voortrekkers rejoined their compatriots on the Highveld, where separate communities had been established in Transorangia the region across the Orange River and the western and northeastern Transvaal.
Apart from a brief period in the mid 19th century, the British left them alone, controlling external trade and security threats through the coastal colonies. On the Highveld the Voortrekkers entered a vibrant and complex African world. To ensconce themselves in the interior, they fought major wars and established a series of accommodations with those Africans whom they were unable to conquer.
Compared with the British colonies, the racially exclusive republics between the Vaal, Hartz, and Limpopo rivers were weak members of the world economy, dependent on cattle ranching and hunting. Bitterly divided politically and ecclesiastically, these republics were unified in as the South African Republicannexed as the British colony of the Transvaal between andand reconquered as the Transvaal during the South African War — The trekkers staked a claim to black lands, provided a framework for speculation and the beginnings of commerce, and established formal legal title to territory, though these claims were as yet barely effective.
The incapacity of the settlers to wrest the indigenous inhabitants from their land resulted in the development of several types of labour coercion and control: The struggle to transform formal claims into actual landownership and control continued well into the 20th century.
Money was short, and government officials were paid in land, usually along with its African occupants. Surrounded by a horseshoe of powerful African chiefdoms, it was only in the last third of the 19th century, during a period of renewed imperial interest in the interior, that the balance of power shifted decisively in favour of white farmers.
The Orange Free State and Basutoland Farther south, in Transorangia, a far greater proportion of the small settler community was tied to Cape and British markets through wool production. Of a population in of some , only the 26, whites had citizenship, but many European observers considered the Orange Free Statewith its parliament and written constitution, a model republic.
Despite the Dutch ancestry of the majority of the settlers, English was the language of commerce and education into the 20th century. With the restoration of peace on the Highveld in the s, many Africans attempted to return to their lands, only to find them occupied. On the first occasion, the Orange Free State was forced to sue for peace.
On the second, Basutoland, internally divided and starved of arms by the British decision to sell weapons to Afrikaners but not Africans, was beaten. Some chiefs, especially in the north, offered their allegiance to the Afrikaners and, with their followers, became labour-tenants on their farms; others moved into the Transkei.
Inin response to repeated appeals from the Sotho, the governor of the Cape annexed Basutoland, leaving the Orange Free State in possession of the fertile Caledon River valley. In the frontiers of Basutoland were delimited, and shortly thereafter it was handed over to the Cape.
Inhowever, when the Cape government tried to disarm the Sotho, a war that the colony could not control broke out, and in Basutoland reverted to British rule.
The Orange Free State also constantly encroached on the better-watered land of its western neighbours, the Griqua and southern Tswana states, which were also under frequent attack from the South African Republic. These attacks led to a growing alliance among the Tswana kingdoms and to protest from the missionaries and Cape traders, who feared the Afrikaners would block the main route to the interior. Nevertheless, the area came under colonial rule only after the discovery in of diamonds in Griqualand West.
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In diamonds were discovered at Kimberley in Griqualand West to the north of the Cape Colony, followed shortly thereafter by discoveries of outcrop surface gold in the Transvaal and deep seams of gold on the Witwatersrand in The conjuncture of speculation in mining futures and land, the imposition of colonial or company rule, and an industrial revolution based on mineral extraction meant that the last third of the 19th century was one of the most traumatic in the history of the region.
The language of racial domination, though hardly new, was now buttressed by social Darwinism and was particularly well suited to an era of intensified land and labour exploitation. The mineral discoveries led to dramatic economic development. Roads, railways, and harbours were built. New coal mines were exploited. Manufacturing, though in its infancy, responded to the new markets, while the creation of an internal market for food was crucial in the commercialization of agriculture and the spread of African cash crop production.
Land prices soared, and the demand for labour became insatiable. A working class—consisting of both whites and blacks—was created out of the preindustrial societies. Colonial conquest subjugated the remaining independent African societies and destroyed the bargaining power of black workers. People from all over the world came to Griqualand West to seek their fortune; between and more than 50, Africans from all over the subcontinent came each year, many of them lured by the prospect of purchasing firearms.
Within a few years there was hardly an African chiefdom, from the Transkei to the Limpopo, that was not armed with guns. Combined with the progressive encroachment on African lands and the intensifying demand for their labour, the rearming of Africans was a major source of the instability of these years. Initially, claims on the diamond fields were limited, technology was primitive, and small-scale black diggers could compete with whites.
In the mid s, however, chaotic production conditions, a flooded world diamond market, and labour shortages made the transition to larger units of production necessary. Joint-stock companies were created, bringing international capital and a transformation of mining technology. By the thousands of claims of the previous decade had been monopolized by the De Beers Mining Company.
For black and white workers the establishment of the De Beers monopoly was of immense significance. African migrant workers were now more rigorously controlled by pass laws, which limited their mobility, and by confinement to compounds for the duration of their work contracts. Many white miners lost their jobs or became overseers, and wages for all workers were sharply reduced.
The discovery of gold With the discovery of the Witwatersrandattention switched from Kimberley to the South African Republic, which was quickly transformed from a ramshackle and bankrupt agrarian outpost to the most important state in the subcontinent. The coastal colonies competed to control the lucrative Witwatersrand trade, and immigration mounted: When local capital proved inadequate, funds flowed in from Britain, Germany, and France.
In the Chamber of Minesan organization of mine owners, was formed to drive down the costs of production. This became even more important once deep-level mines were opened in the mid s, because development costs were high, the ore low-grade, and the price of gold controlled. Skilled, unionized white workers from the mining frontiers of the world were able to protect their high wages, while the chamber formed two major recruiting organizations, the Witwatersrand Native Labour Association Wenela and the Native Recruiting Corporation, to extend, monopolize, and control the black labour supply throughout the subcontinent.
For many young men a period of labour migration could bring independent access to bridewealth. Although the process had its roots in the migration of Africans to colonial labour markets earlier in the century, migrant labour expanded after the mineral discoveries and had profound ramifications for the control of senior men over juniors and colonial administrators over taxpayers. Chiefs thus became increasingly anxious over their lack of control over young men and women and struck alliances with colonial administrators and recruiting agents to secure the return of migrants.
The annexation of Southern Africa The first move in the scramble for Southern Africa came with renewed assertions of British supremacy in the interior. After much dispute, Britain annexed Griqualand West as a crown colony intransferring it to the Cape Colony in The multiple crises following the diamond discoveries led during the s to failed imperial schemes to confederate the Southern African territories, but imperial wars between and effectively ended the independence of the major African kingdoms.
Of these conquests the best-known was the war in against the Zuluwhich included a spectacular defeat of the British army at Isandhlwana; nevertheless, wars against the southern Tswana and Griqua, the Pedi of the eastern Transvaal, the western Xhosa, and the southern Sotho were the essential precondition for the creation of a unified South Africa.
African societies and the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade
The mineral discoveries whetted German imperial ambitions, and in Germany annexed the vast, sparsely populated territory of South West Africa now Namibia.
The annexation challenged British hegemony in the region, raised fears of a German-Transvaal alliance, and accelerated the scramble for Southern Africa. Portugal received short shrift from the other powers, however. At the Berlin West Africa Conference of —85, Portugal secured the Cabinda exclave and a portion of the left bank of the Congo River on the Atlantic coast—considerably less than it claimed—and in the Kunene-Okavango region went to Germany.
Portugal gained even less in Mozambique, which remained a narrow coastal corridor. With the discovery of gold, the remaining independent African polities south of the Limpopo were conquered and annexed, and both within and beyond colonial frontiers concessionaires were spurred by prospects of further discoveries and the availability of speculative capital.
The Limpopo constituted no barrier, and between and all the African territories south of the Congo territory were annexed. In south-central Africa the British competed with the South African Republic, Portugal, Germany, and Belgium, while in east-central Africa, to the west and south of Lake Nyasa, the thrust from the south encountered the less powerful but still significant antislavery missionary and trading frontier from the east.
For many of the peoples of the subcontinent, the first phase of colonialism may have been overshadowed by the series of disasters that struck rural society in the mid s, including locusts, drought, smallpox and other diseases, and a disastrous rinderpest epidemic that decimated African cattle holdings in — Whereas before the colonial period such natural disasters would have killed large numbers in the short term but probably would have had little long-term consequence, the disasters of the s drew considerable numbers of Africans into dependence on colonial labour markets for the first time and thus permanently changed the structure of African society.
In —88 the high commissioner at the Cape, fearful of Transvaal expansion northward, declared the region a British sphere of interest. It was at this point that Cecil John Rhodes entered the arena.