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On the Relationship of “Media and Mobility”

Interpersonal Relationships. naar navigatie (MENU). Kruimelpad. Prospectus Faculty of Social Sciences › SOW-PSB3BE30E Interpersonal Relationships. In times of increasing assimilation between products and services, maintaining good relationships with your existing customer base differentiates your company . International migration boosts travel and vice versa, bringing economic benefits but challenging public policy.

However, the same literature suggests a significant relationship between increased unemployment and suicides [2][3][4][9]. As observed in Figure 2several country-level studies show that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is estimated to increase suicide rates by 0.

These patterns become stronger in young population groups i. In addition, recent data show that suicide rates in the US and the EU have been on a remarkable upward trend following the Great Recession of and the EU financial crisis of [3][4][11]. Thus, social living conditions such as unemployment and income are perceived to be rational determinants of suicide behaviors [11]. Alcohol and tobacco consumption Alcohol and tobacco consumption are shown to be both positively and negatively affected by recessions, with a number of studies disagreeing on this point [1].

Changes in alcohol and tobacco consumption can have a considerable effect on public health, as their levels are causally related to many chronic medical conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases [1][5][6].

Alcohol-related behaviors also bring with them substantial negative societal issues, both direct and indirect, including crime, violent behavior, traffic accidents, and social exclusion [1].

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Recent studies from the US suggest that a decline in economic resources is associated with an increased risk of smoking and drinking problems [12][13].

These patterns fit well with EU studies, which suggest that alcohol consumption may increase during spells of higher unemployment [5]. However, these results contradict previous US studies, which indicate that there is a negative relation between recessions and smoking and drinking [2][9]. In periods of adverse economic conditions, smokers and drinkers may smoke and drink more because they are more stressed, angry, anxious, sad, and inactive, and believe that smoking and drinking will alleviate these moods and stresses [12][13].

However, a decrease in working hours will lead to more time for social events and watching television; in turn, these activities might lead to more consumption of alcohol and tobacco [12][13]. Arguing for a negative relationship between recessions and substance abuse, several scholars have suggested that a lighter workload during economic recessions may lead to less stress and thereby to a reduction in alcohol and tobacco consumption [2][9].

In addition, during economic recessions, employed people might consume fewer drinks and drink less heavily in order to increase their chances of holding onto their job, while unemployed people lower their consumption in order to increase their chances of getting a new job [2][9].

Finally, as a result of personal income reductions, tighter budget constraints during a recessionary period could lead to less money being spent on tobacco and alcohol [2][9]. Having said this, it must be kept in mind that some alternative strategies that drinkers use to adjust to tighter budget constraints are to switch to cheaper alcoholic beverages, or to substitute drinking in bars with drinking at home [3].

Limitations and gaps It is important to highlight that different methodological approaches could generate different results. For instance, country-level studies find that mortality rates generally decline during economic contractions [1][3]. By contrast, individual-level studies suggest that unemployment itself leads to poorer mental health and well-being [7]. Although these measures are perceived as reliable health indicators, some researchers suggest that aggregate medical reports would likely provide more robust indicators for evaluation purposes.

Such behavior could result in overestimation or underestimation of health issues, respectively. Consider also that studies on mortality rates alone might fail to capture the complex nature of population health and mental health dynamics, thus resulting in an underestimation of potential effects.

For example, country-level studies do not allow for a clear identification of who has been affected, how they have been affected, who has not been affected, or to determine the magnitude of the impact on specific health conditions.

In addition, while recessions seem to reduce mortality rates among the population as a whole, they may worsen rates among specific social groups [1][5][7]. Thus, varied individual- and country-level settings as well as different health status indicators make drawing general conclusions difficult. A clear understanding of the patterns captured, and not captured, by each study is important when considering potential policy implications.

Crucially, recessions vary in their depth and length, which is likely to influence their impact on health-related problems. Without longitudinal data of sufficient duration and without meta-analyses that control for recession characteristics, it is not possible to assess the direction and significance of the relationships, nor is it possible to offer firm conclusions or comparisons between regions.

It is very important to have a clear understanding of the appropriate time lag before any causal conclusions about the relationship between recessions and health status can be drawn. Indeed, the health and mortality consequences from economic recessions could occur after a significant time delay. Thus, adverse health consequences resulting from a previous recession might not appear until the recovery phase is already underway. This significant feature would lead to biased patterns found during both the recession and recovery periods.

As the impact of recessions could well differ between subgroups within a country, more work is needed on this issue, as many studies have failed to control for age cohorts, pre-recession health conditions, and low-income groups. Moreover, by considering pre-recession health conditions, researchers could reduce the prevalence of biased results and better clarify causality paths.

In general, it might be that a significant deterioration in health status is observed only among those who were health-impaired before recessions and before the onset of unemployment. It is therefore important to build a well-developed pool of longitudinal data that allows researchers to account for changes in employment and health status over time. Future research on this topic would benefit most from meta-analyses that could empirically evaluate whether social safety nets are able to minimize the adverse health effects of recessions.

In the same vein, meta-analyses should consider controlling for austerity measures, particularly for wage and pension reductions in addition to cuts in health budgets. Indeed, this would help to explain regional differences when it comes to health-related outcomes and austerity measures.

These results would allow for the creation of research-led policy proposals designed to minimize the negative impacts of recessions, and maybe even maximize the positive ones. Some evidence supports the notion—resulting from country-level research—that economic downturns reduce mortality and motor vehicle deaths, but lead to an increase in the number of suicides [3][4][6]. Individual-level studies primarily suggest that mental-health indicators deteriorate during recessions [6].

However, it is difficult to reach firm conclusions about the relationship between recessions and certain health problems, such as cardiovascular and liver diseases [3][4].

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The same holds true for the relationship between recessions and tobacco and alcohol consumption [6][7][13]. Regional differences, demography, depth and length of the recession, austerity measures, and social welfare programs are factors that probably impact the relationship between economic downturns and health [3][4][7]. As general conclusions remain elusive, countries should consider the aggregate patterns emerging from their respective regions and take the relevant actions that are most suited to their specific situation.

In addition, if recessions negatively affect working-age people and specific population groups, such as those with lower education and lower income, then enhancing social protection policies for those groups would be appropriate [1].

Labor market programs, together with family support programs, minimum-income benefits, long-term unemployment benefits, debt relief programs, and access to health and mental health services can all be effective ways of preventing or mitigating the adverse effects of recessions on well-being indicators [7]. Presently, while severe recessions are ongoing in many countries, it is more timely than ever to investigate whether specific factors such as individual and family support programs, health campaigns, debt relief programs, provision of unemployment and health benefits, and active labor market programs are able to minimize mental health problems, suicides, mortality, specific health situations, and alcohol and tobacco consumption.

If it is proven that social safety-net programs have preserved the health of populations during past recessions, then this feature might be able to partially explain why, in some regions, adverse health problems were not prevalent or were even reduced during times of economic decline. Acknowledgments The author thanks two anonymous referees and the IZA World of Labor editors for many helpful suggestions on earlier drafts.

The author declares to have observed these principles. You put the money in and get the desired results, such as reach, awareness, and conversion. With influencer relations, brands should appeal to their human, emotional side — behind every influencer channel is an actual person. This strategy is long-term and is not a measurable as influencer advertising. Influencer relations require knowing your brand inside out.

What is most unique about your brand?

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How do your biggest fans view your brand and what do they identify with it? Influencer relations also mean getting to know an influencer well, by following them on social media and paying attention to their career.

What are their interests and desires? Additionally, you can use the Influencer Relationship Management feature within InfluencerDB as a method of managing your influencer relations strategy. The 5 challenges of influencer relations Here are the top five challenges to keep an eye out for as you delve into influencer relations. Lack of immediate ROI Oftentimes, it will feel like you put a lot of time and effort into this relationship but do not get results right away.

Your efforts will pay off in the long run. Indirect results are hard to measure Both the values you provide for the influencer, as well as the indirect results, are hard to measure. As with any other kind of non-monetary compensation, the value is highly individual. A special event the influencer is invited to might be more valuable for one influencer than for another. A post shared by Caroline Daur carodaur on Sep 24, at 3: If your brand requires KPIs, think through the kinds of KPIs that a public relations department might work towards, and see if those can fit within your influencer relations reporting and monitoring.

Imbalance of values For both parties, influencer relations can be extremely fruitful. Influencers and brands can offer and receive many different types of benefits, and what they are depend largely on the brand fit or interest of each party.

Just keep in mind that every relationship needs a good balance. Input and output need to be kept in balance: