Boiling point - Wikipedia
Boiling point is the temperature at which vapour pressure of liquid becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure. More is the vapour pressure lesser will be the . The boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure at enviornment of liquid and the liquid. Boiling. A liquid boils at a temperature at which its vapor pressure is equal to the pressure of the gas above it. The lower the pressure of a gas above a liquid, the.
To understand that the relationship between pressure, enthalpy of vaporization, and temperature is given by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
Nearly all of us have heated a pan of water with the lid in place and shortly thereafter heard the sounds of the lid rattling and hot water spilling onto the stovetop.
Volatility (chemistry) - Wikipedia
When a liquid is heated, its molecules obtain sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the forces holding them in the liquid and they escape into the gaseous phase. By doing so, they generate a population of molecules in the vapor phase above the liquid that produces a pressure—the vapor pressure of the liquid.
In the situation we described, enough pressure was generated to move the lid, which allowed the vapor to escape. If the vapor is contained in a sealed vessel, however, such as an unvented flask, and the vapor pressure becomes too high, the flask will explode as many students have unfortunately discovered.
11.5: Vapor Pressure
In this section, we describe vapor pressure in more detail and explain how to quantitatively determine the vapor pressure of a liquid. As for gases, increasing the temperature increases both the average kinetic energy of the particles in a liquid and the range of kinetic energy of the individual molecules.
The fraction of molecules with a kinetic energy greater than this minimum value increases with increasing temperature. Just as with gases, increasing the temperature shifts the peak to a higher energy and broadens the curve.
Some molecules at the surface, however, will have sufficient kinetic energy to escape from the liquid and form a vapor, thus increasing the pressure inside the container. As the number of molecules in the vapor phase increases, the number of collisions between vapor-phase molecules and the surface will also increase. Eventually, a steady state will be reached in which exactly as many molecules per unit time leave the surface of the liquid vaporize as collide with it condense.
At this point, the pressure over the liquid stops increasing and remains constant at a particular value that is characteristic of the liquid at a given temperature. The rate of evaporation depends only on the surface area of the liquid and is essentially constant. The rate of condensation depends on the number of molecules in the vapor phase and increases steadily until it equals the rate of evaporation.
Equilibrium Vapor Pressure Two opposing processes such as evaporation and condensation that occur at the same rate and thus produce no net change in a system, constitute a dynamic equilibrium.
At any given temperature, if a compound's normal boiling point is lower, then that compound will generally exist as a gas at atmospheric external pressure. If the compound's normal boiling point is higher, then that compound can exist as a liquid or solid at that given temperature at atmospheric external pressure, and will so exist in equilibrium with its vapor if volatile if its vapors are contained.
If a compound's vapors are not contained, then some volatile compounds can eventually evaporate away in spite of their higher boiling points. Boiling points of alkanesalkenesethershalogenoalkanesaldehydesketonesalcohols and carboxylic acids as a function of molar mass In general, compounds with ionic bonds have high normal boiling points, if they do not decompose before reaching such high temperatures.
Many metals have high boiling points, but not all. Very generally—with other factors being equal—in compounds with covalently bonded moleculesas the size of the molecule or molecular mass increases, the normal boiling point increases.
When the molecular size becomes that of a macromoleculepolymeror otherwise very large, the compound often decomposes at high temperature before the boiling point is reached. Another factor that affects the normal boiling point of a compound is the polarity of its molecules.
thermodynamics - Relationship between boiling point and pressure - Physics Stack Exchange
As the polarity of a compound's molecules increases, its normal boiling point increases, other factors being equal. Closely related is the ability of a molecule to form hydrogen bonds in the liquid statewhich makes it harder for molecules to leave the liquid state and thus increases the normal boiling point of the compound.
Simple carboxylic acids dimerize by forming hydrogen bonds between molecules.