Peasants' Revolt - Wikipedia
The peasantry in Brandenburg-Prussia were either f ree or servile.3 The . the usual complaints as to the relation of low wages to morals, the insufficient food, the West of the Elbe, in the older regions, serfdom had constantly grown better his successor, fulminated in his usual tone against their miserable condition and. Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. United States Department of Agriculture. Serfdom was formally abolished in Russia on February 19 (March 3), . Thus, the Russian peasant was delivered body and soul to the mercies of the exempt an author from subsequent persecution, as was exemplified by the sad. Serfs in the middle ages were generally peasant farmers who provided manual The only difference between a slave and villein was that the villein was not.
Serfs, however, could do neither and were not permitted to relocate with out the lord's approval. Farmers were a bit better off than peasants, as some owned their own farms. Most worked the farm lands themselves or with the aid of peasants and serfs.
The Feudal System – Peasants and how the feudal system ended.
Farmers and peasants lived in simple dwellings called cottages. They built their own homes from wood and the roofs were thatched made of bundles of reeds that have to be replaced periodically. The interior walls were generally made of wattle and daub - an arrangement of twigs weaved into a wall shape and coated with mud and straw to make a hard, plaster-like surface to keep out drafts.
Often farmers, peasants and serfs brought their animals into their homes to protect them. Tradesmen Carpenters were highly skilled and considered to be elite tradesmen. To become a carpenter, it was usually necessary to join a guild as an apprentice and learn the craft. A knowledge of math, woodworking and the use of tools was required for all carpenters.
King and nobles often sought the finest carpenters and kept them retained on their staffs as specialists. Furnishing castles and estates was not only done for decorative purposes, but also to demonstrate prestige and status to visitors.
Thus, a master carpenter was always in demand and could earn high wages. The metalsmith, sometimes called blacksmith, had to first make his tools before he could make metal parts such as horseshoes, nails and door hinges. The blacksmith would also work as an armorer for the king or count - making swords, shields and armor. Civilizations of The Middle Ages The Roman Empire was in decline and being invaded by many tribes in the third, fourth and fifth centuries.
These tribes waged battles and war to establish new territories and kingdoms, where the leaders were always heroes of battles for land.
New waves of invasions took place in the early ninth century by tribes not previously known to invade European lands. Below is a list of the eight key tribes of the period. Nevertheless, serfdom was largely seen as an oppressive system that possessed characteristics of partial freedom and slavery. Within the middle ages manor or village where the serfs lived and worked, there were further stratifications.
The freemen did not owe labor to their lords but they paid rent in the form of agricultural products or money.
Other laborers included smallholders who would also rent very small pieces of land from the lord but they were not tied to the soil. At anytime these people would decide to become villeins and surrender most of their rights to the nobility or lords.Life in the Middle Ages The Serf
A villein or villain was the most common type of serf. Villeins had greater rights than the lower serfs. They would spend the remaining time working in their own lands.
There were other variations of villeins especially in middle ages Europe.
There were half-villeins who had access to very small pieces of land for their use and they owed their lord complete labor. Cottagers or small holders were lowers than the villeins because they only had access to small pieces of land, enough to feed a family.
They were also not allowed to own horses or oxen while they lived within the enclosure of the manor. The only difference between a slave and villein was that the villein was not traded and he would not be dispossessed of his belongings. However, villeins were of a lower status that a freeman because the lord did not permit the villein serf to marry someone outside of the manor, or change homes or donate his property.
The Peasants' Revolt
The only way that a vellein would become free would be to run way to the city or a borough. But this would incur harsh penalties including losing land rights, paying a high price or loss of livelihood. Daily Life For purposes of safety and defense, the serfs lived close together in small villages around their master.
Other than working in the lands, the serfs were also dedicated to the Church. The church played an important role in their lives as the serfs looked up to the Church for additional assistance in difficult times. The serfs generously offered their labor and produce to their local church and were particularly instrumental in maintain the overall fabric of the church.
The day-to-day life a serf was difficult. In addition to the labor that he provided the lord, he also paid extra taxes for using facilities in the manor such as the mill.