Pair Of Kings S03E20 Meet The Parents - Dailymotion Video
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The scientists are looking at a possible scenario: Homo heidelbergensis originated in Asia and spread to Africa and Europe. Thousands of years later while Homo heidelbergensis living in Europe and Asia evolved into the Neanderthals and the Denisovans circatoyears ago respectively. In Africa, Homo heidelbergensis evolved into archaic Homo sapiens aboutyears ago.
The problem with the postulation that Homo heidelbergensis originated in Asia is that DNA and molecular genetics say otherwise. By the time you read Section E in full, you will see that molecular genetics shows quite clearly that while Homo sapiens could not have originated in Asia, but originated in Africa, it may have been possible that the Homo heidelbergensis in Africa DID have an Asian origin. Homo antecessor A special European version of Homo heidelbergensis.
Often portrayed by the media and in films as being dumb, they survived for more thanyears compared to the fact that modern anatomically humans today have only existed foryears Africa70, years Asia45, years Europe and 26, years the Americas. They were the sole inhabitants of much of Europe during the early to middle stages of the last glaciations of the end of last Ice Age fromyears ago Middle Palaeolithic era to about 50, years ago Late Pleistocene Epoch.
It should be noted that the last Ice Age began the Quaternary Period, and the penultimate part of this period is the Pleistocene Epoch. Today we live in the part of the Quaternary Period known as the Holocene Epoch Scientists tell us that at least five major Ice Ages have occurred throughout Earth's history: In-between each of the 5 major Ice Ages, over 48 glaciations occurred, each lasting a few thousand years, some glaciations were very harsh while some were not very harsh.
The glaciations of the last Ice Age, which coincided with the arrival of the Neanderthals and modern humans lasted from aboutyears ago to about 12, years ago. While the Neanderthals survived the start of the earliest glaciations of the last Ice Age from at leastyears agomodern humans in Europe arrived around the time of the later glaciations circa 45, years ago, which were not as severe as the much colder earlier glaciations the Neanderthals had to endure. This section also looks at the oldest caves and cavemen paintings in the world.
Respectivelyandyears old. A big achievement for science. Early Anatomically Modern Humans Arrivestoyears ago. Known as archaic Homo sapiens.
Leave Africa for the 1st time and head to Asia only possibly reaching as far as Australia, i. They left behind fossils such as the famous Skhul and Qafzeh fossils of Israel and the Jebel Faya fossils of the United Arab Emirates, both are at leastyears old!
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This first migration of modern humans is the origin of the theory of Mitochondrial Eve to be discussed in Section E. This period of time is known as the Late Pleistocene Epoch.
I also discuss the accepted two routes, viz the Northern Routeyears ago and the Southern Route 70, years agowhich were both taken by Anatomically Modern Humans as they migrated out of Africa into Asia, Europe and later the Americas. In Januarystunned Israeli and American scientists announced that archaic Homo sapiens fossils found in caves at Mount Camel in Israel, are now the oldest archaic Homo sapiens discovered outside Africa.
Dating tests show that the fossils are at leasttoyears old. Meanwhile the Jebel Irhoud fossils in Morocco,years old remain the oldest archaic Homo sapiens fossils in the world. In-between when Mitochondrial Eve was discovered and molecular genetics supported the scientific view that anatomically-modern humans evolved someyears ago. But inspectacular new fossils of modern humans such as Jebel Irhoud fossils in Morocco revised the earliest date modern humans first evolved asyears ago and notyears ago.
This also means the age of the Northern Route must now be revised fromyears ago to at leastyears ago!! But the Indian and German scientists are very cautious, because the stone tools kind of resemble Neanderthal tools in some ways.
So it is early days, as more studies need to be done on the stone tools. In Octoberscientists announced that when early Anatomically Modern Humans migrated out of Africa for the 1st time circayears ago, they reached ancient pre-historic China aroundyears ago!
I discuss this amazing find. But in Decemberscientists claim there was in fact a 3rd type of non-Anatomicaly Modern Humans around as well: I examine this discovery in detail.
Pair of Kings - S3 E20 - Meet the Parents
Archaic Humans Begin Wearing Clothes Prior to that all earlier human species above went about butt naked. The Cro-Magnons Meet the Neanderthals from 45, years ago. What was the outcome of the strange encounter? In early AugustProfessor Chris Stringer, one of Britain's best known leading paleoanthropologist, presented a ground-breaking research paper, mentioned in the journal Philosophical Transactions in which he theorises that the lineage that led to anatomically modern humans might well be at leastyears toyears old and not well establishedyears old as previously accepted by scientists.
Professor Stringer predicts that one day paleoanthropologists worldwide will discover anatomically modern human fossils in Africa and probably elsewhere, that are much older thanyears old. I discuss more about this interesting theory in this section. Other over ", years old" examples of Professor Chris Stringer fascinatig prediction include the strange case of Florisbad Fossils or Homo helmei which isyears old and the strange case of the ancestors of Mr Albert Perry's DNA which isyears old!
In Juneon the bioRxiv server a popular repository for biological sciences research work papers a recent research paper written by South African and Swedish scientists led by Drs Mattias Jakobsson, Carina Schlebusch and Helena Malmstrom at Uppsala University in Sweden and the University of Johannesburg and Witwatersrand University in South Africa provided crucial genetic evidence that lineage that led to anatomically modern humans is overyears old, after DNA testing a rare 2, year old fossil.
In early Juneexcited scientists discovered further proof of Professor Chris Stringer amazing prediction that the lineage that led to anatomically modern humans might well be over at leastyears old and notyears old as previously accepted by scientists i.
Omo Kibish fossils in Ethiopia. The latest dating estimates indicate that the age of the Jebel Irhoud fossils in Morocco are overyears old!
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I discuss this rather amazing discovery in detail. They were the earliest types of anatomically modern humans. This section also calculates how long it took for anatomically modern humans to trek from Africa to Europe, Asia and the Americas. This time also travel to Europe and The Americas. First major migration of Later Anatomically Modern Humans.
How long did it take anatomically modern man to reach all parts of the globe from Africa? From 90, years, later anatomically modern humans evolved in Africa, then after thousands of years living only in Africa, a group then migrated to Asia incl the Middle East from 70, years ago, reached Europe 45, years ago and finally settled the Americas 28, years ago. Scientists have calculated that anatomically modern man only needed to walk 3 miles every 5 years to eventually reach all parts of the globe except Antartica which is the only continent with no indigenous population.
Professor Chris Stringer U. Natural History Museum has calculated that for anatomically modern humans in Africa to have reached Australia 60, years ago i. Mungo Man fossilsthey only had to travel only one mile each year for next 10, years to reach Australia, having left Africa 70, years ago. Bear in mind that anatomically modern humans were all hunter-gatherers moving from place to place every few hours nomadic lifestyle and only settled down 12, years ago, when agriculture farming was invented.
In Septemberthe journal Nature reported that three major independent genetics studies in U. The studies revealed that anatomically modern humans actually left Africa between 50, to 80, years ago and not the avearge date of 70, years ago.
And the migration was via one single dispersal, and not multiple dispersals. This section also discusses very briefly why all modern humans today are It is just 70 genes that make Europeans, Africans and Asians different from one another in physical appearance, e.
More detailed information on genetics data covering human origins is provided in section E, below. The year saw a new world record for the oldest DNA extracted from fossils: The Functions of Mitochondria. To understand the usefulness of mitochondrial DNA in human evolution we need a basic understanding what DNA and genes are. Men and Mitochondrial DNA. Why men cannot pass on mitochondrial DNA, but women can.
Explains how mutations in mitochondrial DNA are spotted. Includes a look at types of mutations known as SNP or Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, as well as several updated examples of good and bad mutations that occur in humans. In Marchthe respected journal Nature Biotechnology reported that French biochemists, using pioneering molecular biology techniques based on Gene Therapy were able to genetically change the faulty genes in the bone marrow of a Sickle Cell disease patient in a way that it started to reproduce normal haemoglobin and ceased making mutated haemoglobin.
Gene Therapy a product of biotechnology, where boffins seek to repair mutated genes is fast becoming a way scientists can change faulty genes in humans!
But the technology known as gene therapy is not limited to treating adults and children. In August the respected British journal Nature reported that U. The faulty genes had a mutation that would have caused several serious genetic diseases in the embryos, had they been naturally fertilized and grew into babies.
This is the first time that gene-editing tools have been used to fix a mutation in cells at the embryo stage. In Decemberthe scientific community was shocked to hear that Chinese researchers were able to use gene-editing tools based on CRISPR-Cas9 to alter or tweak as reported the genome of an embryo, during in-vitro fertilization and impant it into the donor of the egg leading to live birth 9 months later.
It was clearly a big controversy as modern eugenics or genetic engineering is focused primarity on repairing faulty mutated genes. But in this case Professor He Jiankui had "created" a baby resistant to a number of serious diseases such as smallpox and cholera. The jury is out on whether this achievement crossed the line on ethics standards in genetics. Extraction, Isolation and Sequencing. Here I explain how geneticists isolate and sequence mitochondrial DNA from cells.
The Link Between Mutations and Ancestry. The more mutations or genetic diversities in the mitochondrial DNA in a person, then the older that person's ancestry. Introduction to Mitochondrial Eve. How Mitochondrial Eve was discovered. It is the order of these two genetic markers and other markers that show up during DNA profiling, that allows scientists to trace the exact journey taken by humans as they migrated out of Africa into Asia, Europe and the Americas.
Includes detailed world map of the various MtDNA haplogroups. Introduction to Y-Chromosome Adam. Includes the top 10 DNA testing firms in the world.
After much research I have concluded that the Tuaregs originally from North Africa and who are versatile nomads, were very common in parts West Africa from the s, and most probably a group of them had a chance sexual encounter with one of my distant ancestors somewhere in West Africa circa late s. My trace Scottish DNA comes from Scottish missionaries who came into contact with my father's maternal ancestors in the early s. But I am proud of my European Scottish and African ancestry. Have you had your own DNA ancestry test yet?
I also explore how Short Tandem Repeats changed forensic science forever. The Origin of Ethnic Groups Seen Today As early modern humans migrated from Africa into much colder climates in Europe and western Asia from 70, years ago, they had to evolve to adapt to brand new environments, leading to the evolution of physiological differences not found in those humans who did not take part in the migration, such as the evolution of skin colour changes.
SNPs for the genes that give dark skin colour in modern humans i. This suggests the SLC24A5 gene that gives light skin colour in modern humans may have only appeared in some migrants to Europe after at least 10, years ago, and not before 10, years ago in migrants into Europe. Recall that modern humans arrived Europe roughly 45, years ago. This also means that while evolution got to work enabling lighter skin colour to be manifested in modern humans migrating from Africa to Europe, not all the migrants had lighter skin colour changes to enable the skin absorb more sunlight to make vitamin D in cold climates.
Some early modern humans arrived modern Europe with darker skins colours as supported by the Cheddar Man discoveries in February But Natural Selection was the reason why all the remaining darker skin ancient human migrants in Europe had lighter skin colour eventually. Today the MC1R gene remains inactive in modern day Europeans i.
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European ancestry on chromosome 16 due to a permanent mutation, meanwhile active variants of the SLC24A5 genes are found on chromosome 15 in modern day Europeans i. But an analogy of the MC1R gene presents itself when modern Europeans visit hot tropical climates for holidays such as Brazil or North Africa and get a temporary skin tan. The skin tan is not due to the inactive MC1R gene being reactivated but simply the exposure to longer periods of the sun in hotter tropical climates directly causing melanin genes in skin cells to produce large amounts of melanin.
Then onto Asia proper, E. In Julythe respected journal Nature reported that scientists in Australia have discovered artefacts left over by the Aboriginals of Australia seem to indicate that the Aboriginals of Australia arrived there much earlier than the 40, to 50, years ago.
Preliminary dating suggests that the Aboriginals arrived Australia about 65, years ago. Modern Humans Arrive the Americas 26, years ago. At the begining of the movie, we are shown two early modern humans walking along icy Texas, circa 35, BC!!
As my science blog shows, modern humans had not yet reached the Americas from Asia in 35, BC! But since it is a movie, the date error is understandable. Both Mesolithic sites date from 10, years ago and are the oldest surviving sites of continuous human habitation in Britain today.
Agriculture and the Arrival of Civilisations 12, years ago 10, BC. Start of Neolithic era. How small settlements in ancient Middle East, developed into city states with sophisticated cultures, starting with the famous Fertile Crescent in Iraq: Bronze Age Begins 4, BC.
Humans leave behind stone tools forever, after having used only stone tools from 2. Iron Age Begins 1, BC. Humans start to make better and stronger tools than Bronze Age tools. Sources, Further Reading and Disclaimer A full list of every single source used for the HTML eBook as well as other sources consulted I could not have written this very long HTML eBook without so much research work in libraries reading lots of books and watching so many TV documentaries about evolution and the origins of humans.
My list of further reading includes several books to read. The Top Eight TV Documentaries on Human Evolution to Watch In this section, I preview eight documentary TV programmes where eight different people travel the whole world for several days, meeting different people, exploring different cultures and visiting ancient sites used by our human ancestors. They all explain human evolution and the out of Africa migration in a very beautiful narrative way.
The seven presenters previewed are: And just after the disclaimer, I take a very brief look at the sensitive relationship between the Darwin's main theory of evolution and the concept of a Supreme Being or the existence of God.
The flat is extremely well 'kitted 'out. Everything you could possibly want to make your stay comfortable was there - basic food stuff in kitchen; kindling, timber and coal for the open fire;info on local transport restaurants etc; books of many different genres to read; CDs; WiFi. It was our first time to use Airbnb and we loved it.
Thank you Rachel for a lovely weekend. They found the place exceptional and ideal for what they needed. Everything worked for them and communication wit the hist was excellent.
The flat is very comfortable and cozy and it is in a very quiet street but close to everything you need: And best of all is the host, Rachel: As we had very good weather we enjoyed the beautiful garden.
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It is a very nice neighbourhood near a lovely park. A supermarkt and nice coffee bar are nearby. It is very easy to go to the center of London by bus or train.
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One night we also had dinner at the Tulse Hill Hotel just around the corner.