Language, Thought, and Utterance by Anisha Az-Zahra on Prezi
Chapter 9 Language, thought and culture A relationship at the heart of psycholinguistics The relationship of language, thought, and culture is a topic that is. Psycholinguistics is the study of the language It is concerned with the relationship between At its heart, psycholinguistic work consists of two questions. 9 Language, Thought and Culture The relationship of language, thought, and culture is a topic that is A Relationship at the Heart of Psycholinguistics
To interact however, language is a vital element thus the theory suggests that language and thought are integrated and can therefore not be perceived separately. Semantics and thought[ edit ] In thought, ideas possess various orientations in such aspects as; time, space, epistemology, social interaction and context. For instance, English pays particular emphasis to tenses but the choice of particular tenses may vary from one telling to the next.
Thus, this aspect is a choice taken in the actual act of producing the sound and not an underlying thought.
Other language may pay particle attention to other orientations such as epistemology distinctions. Specific orientations express variable semantic choices and not necessarily, elements of thought may not directly influence consciousness of thought rather on semantic, linguistically imposed organization of thought. Aphasia and Thought[ edit ] Although much about the brain is unknown, it has been noticed that damage to different regions of the brain develops specific types of aphasias or language disorders.
Damage for example to the left frontal lobe results to speech impairments including slowness, needs effort, and poor words of sentence structures and although comprehension is retained, complex sentences in structure may not be clearly understood. Damage to left temporal lobe impairs fluency with such disorders as Wernickes aphasia where comprehension is undermined; speech may be fluent but may have errors in sound and word selection.
Psycholinguistics/Language and Thought
Damage to superior lobes in the two hemispheres may result to the affected individual being unable to comprehend words word deafness thus being deaf for speech. The affected individual lacks comprehension of the words although they may hear the sounds, judge the emotional aspect and even identify gender of the source.
BBC reports on a study done in UK where patients suffering from severe aphasia in that they did not understand or generate grammatically proper language.
Although they could not comprehend differences in simple sentences when the order of words was interchanged, they nevertheless identified reversibility in simple sums. The findings that mathematical reasoning can be active without language is a strong indication that thought might not be dependent on language. Animals, Thought and Language[ edit ] Whereas there is agreement that animals use their brains, there have been discussions on whether they possess thought.
In this context, thought is more than mere mental images, memories, and experiences and refers to the process of activating schemata to acquire new meaning, to reason, analyze and make decisions. When a dog buries a bone, or skips when its handler mentions some words, can this be considered as thought? Consciously, does a cat think to go hunting in a specific direction or is it led by instincts and memory?
Some argue that animals are capable of language. A view expressed by Crist on prior investigation of the scientific controversy on if the honeybee dance is language concludes that it is a language — a dance language. Various authors however do not agree and express different views on the relationship of animals, thought and language.
Descartes denied that animals have thought supporting his stand with the assertion that animals only communicate bodily movements and natural impulses and none has expressed using speech that is, word of sign that indicates thought alone and not natural impulse. Human beings are able to respond in a distinct way to various circumstances — an aspect that is distinct from machines and other animals.
Descartes came close to considering language as a criterion for thought as he considered it as necessary and sufficient for thought. It would seem plausible that genuine language is a sufficient indication for thought but his consideration that it is necessary for presence of thought may be questioned.
The determination of whether animals such as dogs or cats can be considered to have thought may be considered a factor of whether their output can finitely be defined of is a mechanical response. A dog demanding to be fed may be considered too thin based on Descartes view to decide if they constitute genuine thought Preston, Although Condillac Coski, does not argue that animals are automata without thought or reasoned speech, he however does not consider animals to be at the same level with human beings.
Animals have various limitations including; only animals that live close to man acquire human communication systems, the capacity of understanding the human language is highly limited, animals acquire this language out of need, they acquire this language through long habit and only then can they understand human speech without gestures, and they are passive receivers.
Language Dictates Thinking[ edit ] The Whorfian theory was subjected to various criticisms from psychology. First, as argued by Steven Pinker, Wason and Jorhnson Laird is the lack of evidence that a language influences a particular way of thinking towards the world for its speakers Skotko, ; Leva, By the s, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis had lost favor with most scientists with most adopting theories that considered language and thought as universal Leva, The critics agreed that language expresses thought but criticized the idea that language can influence content and thought.
The theory has been criticized for its extremist view that people who use a language cannot understand a concept if it is lacking in their language. Another example is the Mandarin Chinese who although do not have words describing present, past, and future tenses, they nevertheless understand this concept.
Language influences and enforces our thought process. Lev Vygotsky argued that thought is not only expressed in words but comes into existence through them as cited in Perkins, Research by Stephen Levinson shows for example that people who speak languages that rely on absolute directions perform better in keeping track of their locations even in unfamiliar grounds when place in the same locations with local folks although they may not speak the same language Leva, How an individual perceives such aspects as time and space are affected by language.
An example is that most European languages express time as horizontal whereas Mandarin Chinese express it as vertical. Such other aspects include action orientation or conditional references that depict anecdotal hints of possible effects. An example of this is the cause and effect aspect difference exhibited from a video shown to English and Japanese speakers.
These differences in language also affect how people construe what happened and affect eyewitness memory Leva, For example in the above example, English speakers would on request to remember tend to remember the accidents more agentive thus identifying the door more easily than their Japanese counterparts.
S&K's Language Teaching Method
Language does not only influence memory, but also the degree of ease in learning new things Leva, Children speaking a language for example that mentions base 10 structures more clearly than for example in English learn the base 10 insight sooner. The number of syllables the number word has also affects such aspects as remembering the phone number.
Different Language, Different Thinking[ edit ] Based on such prior works as Whorf hypothesis, authors in the past have been interested in establishing whether people using different languages think differently. Would it be expected that an individual speaking English and one speaking Japanese would think differently just because of the language they use? With Russian, the verb would connote not only the tense but also the gender.
Chapter 9 Psycholinguistics - ppt download
In Turkish, the same expression would give information on how the information was acquired. This example depicts the different requirements that languages demand from their speakers.
For this reason I believe that natural acquisition through real-life communicative experience can be complemented with audiolingual exercises and even with occasional grammar clarifications.What Is The Psycholinguistic?
Our unique teaching materials based on contrastive analysis play here an important role. Along with the traveling and the living experience, and especially when this is not possible, I also support an approach like Charles Curran's CLL Communicative Language Learning. Curran believes that psychological counseling and foreign language tutoring are closely related. He advocates a unified concept of man and says that physical, intellectual, psychological and emotional factors can all influence language acquisition.
Affection and an intimate relationship between the instructor and the learner, with both on the same level, provide the necessary framework. The instructor plays a non-authoritarian and non-directive role and activities are student-centered. The focus shifts from grammar and sentence formation to a deep sense of personal communication. When language is used an instrument to satisfy a strong desire to communicate, results can be impressive.
In this psycholinguistic approach, the counselor-teacher needs to try to build a personal relationship with the learner. The more personal the relationship, the more the target language will be learned. Of course, this psychological involvement depends greatly on the student's personality.
Therefore, the teacher must be constantly alert and able to recognize the communicative moments and opportunities and to explore them when they arise. O instrutor deve estar constantemente alerta para saber reconhecer e aproveitar os momentos de abertura do aluno.
The key element of a psycholinguistic approach is the personal and intimate contact between learner and counselor. The learner's interests are explored and his own ideas are used as teaching materials.
Chapter 9 Psycholinguistics
As in psychoanalysis, learner and counselor immerse in each other's mind. Sentence level aphasia, David Caplan Language in Deaf Populations: Corina and Laurel A. Language Production Section One: Links between Perception and Production: Representation, Retrieval and Integration, Linda R. Wheeldon and Agnieszka E. From Thought to Action: Grammatical Encoding, Victor S. Ferreira, Adam Morgan, and L.
Robert Slevc Section Three: Sentence and Discourse Level Branzi, Marco Calabria, and Albert Costa The relationship between syntactic production and comprehension, Peter Indefrey Word production and related processes: