Heurnius, Justus () | History of Missiology
“Calvin and Calvinism in the Netherlands.” In John Calvin: Stewart, Kenneth J. “Calvinism and Missions: The Contested Relationship Revisited.” Themelios For your convenience, a search was performed using the query contest. Calvinism and Missions: the Contested Relationship Revisited. Web Page by Ken. One of the main objections to the Calvinist or Augustinian doctrine of “ Calvinism and Missions: The Contested Relationship Revisited,”.
Christian missionaries played a public role, especially in promoting sanitation and public health. Many were trained as physicians, or took special courses in public health and tropical medicine at Livingstone College, London. The rise of nationalism in the Third World provoked challenges from critics who complained that the missionaries were teaching Western ways, and ignoring the indigenous culture.
The Boxer Rebellion in China in involved very large scale attacks on Christian missions and their converts. The First World War diverted resources, and pulled most Germans out of missionary work when that country lost its empire.
The worldwide Great Depression of the s was a major blow to funding mission activities. Mottan American Methodist layperson, the conference reviewed the state of evangelism, Bible translation, mobilization of church support, and the training of indigenous leadership.
The conference not only established greater ecumenical cooperation in missions, but also essentially launched the modern ecumenical movement. The next wave of missions was started by two missionaries, Cameron Townsend and Donald McGavranaround These men realized that although earlier missionaries had reached geographic areas, there were numerous ethnographic groups that were isolated by language, or class from the groups that missionaries had reached.
Cameron formed Wycliffe Bible Translators to translate the Bible into native languages. McGavran concentrated on finding bridges to cross the class and cultural barriers in places like India, which has upwards of 4, peoples, separated by a combination of language, culture, and caste. Despite democratic reforms, caste and class differences are still fundamental in many cultures. An equally important dimension of missions strategy is the indigenous method of nationals reaching their own people.
In Asia this wave of missions was pioneered by men like Dr G. The "two thirds missions movement" as it is referred to, is today a major force in missions.
Most modern missionaries and missionary societies have repudiated cultural imperialism, and elected to focus on spreading the gospel and translating the Bible. Often, missionaries provide welfare and health services, as a good deed or to make friends with the locals. Thousands of schools, orphanages, and hospitals have been established by missions. One service provided by missionaries was the Each one, teach one literacy program begun by Dr.
Frank Laubach in the Philippines in The program has since spread around the world and brought literacy to the least enabled members of many societies. In some colonies, these mission stations became a focus of settlement of displaced or formerly nomadic people. Particularly in rural Australia, missions have become localities or ghettoes on the edges of towns which are home to many Indigenous Australians.
The word may be seen as derogatory when used in this context. Additional events can be found at the timeline of Christian missions. Contemporary concepts of mission[ edit ] Sending and receiving nations[ edit ] Major nations not only send and fund missionaries abroad, but also receive them from other countries.
Inthe United States sent outmissionaries, while 32, came to the United States. Brazil was second, sending out 34, and receiving 20, France sent out 21, and received 10, Britain sent out 15, and received 10, India sent out 10, and received Other major exporters included Spain at 21, sent out, Italy at 20, South Korea at 20, Germany at 14, and Canada at 8, Large recipient nations included Russia, receiving 20,; Congo receiving 15,; South Africa, 12,; Argentina, 10,; and Chile, 8, The largest sending agency in the United States was the Southern Baptist Convention, with 4, missionaries, plus support staff working inside the United States.
Calvinism Missions: The Contested Relationship Revisited
In recent years, however, the Southern Baptist foreign missionary operation the International Mission Board has operated at a deficit, and it is cutting operations by 15 percent. It is encouraging older missionaries to retire and return to the United States. It regards "mission" as that which is designed "to form a viable indigenous church -planting and world changing movement. The definition is claimed to summarize the acts of Jesus ' ministry, which is taken as a model motivation for all ministries.
This Christian missionary movement seeks to implement churches after the pattern of the first century Apostles. The process of forming disciples is necessarily social.
In this view, even those who are already culturally Christian must be "evangelized". Church planting by cross-cultural missionaries leads to the establishment of self-governing, self-supporting and self-propagating communities of believers.
This is the famous "three-self" formula formulated by Henry Venn of the London Church Missionary Society in the 19th century. Cross-cultural missionaries are persons who accept church-planting duties to evangelize people outside their culture, as Christ commanded in the Great Commission Matthew The objective of these missionaries is to give an understandable presentation of their beliefs with the hope that people will choose to following the teaching of Jesus Christ and live their lives as His disciples.
Modern mission techniques are sufficiently refined that within ten to fifteen years, most indigenous churches are locally pastored, managed, taught, self-supporting and evangelizing.
The process can be substantially faster if a preexisting translation of the Bible and higher pastoral education are already available, perhaps left over from earlier, less effective missions.
One strategy is to let indigenous cultural groups decide to adopt Christian doctrines and benefits, when as in most cultures such major decisions are normally made by groups. In this way, opinion leaders in the groups can persuade much or most of the groups to convert. When combined with training in discipleship, church planting and other modern missionary doctrinethe result is an accelerating, self-propelled conversion of large portions of the culture. A typical modern mission is a co-operative effort by many different ministries, often including several coordinating ministries, such as the Faith2Share network, often with separate funding sources.
One typical effort proceeded as follows: A missionary radio group recruits, trains and broadcasts in the main dialect of the target culture's language.
Broadcast content is carefully adapted to avoid syncretism yet help the Christian Gospel seem like a native, normal part of the target culture. Broadcast content often includes news, music, entertainment and education in the language, as well as purely Christian items.
Broadcasts might advertise programs, inexpensive radios possibly spring-woundand a literature ministry that sells a Christian mail-order correspondence course at nominal costs. The literature ministry is key, and is normally a separate organization from the radio ministry. Modern literature missions are shifting to web-based content where it makes sense as in Western Europe and Japan.
When a person or group completes a correspondence course, they are invited to contact a church-planting missionary group from if possible a related cultural group. The church-planting ministry is usually a different ministry from either the literature or radio ministries.
The church-planting ministry usually requires its missionaries to be fluent in the target language, and trained in modern church-planting techniques.
The missionary then leads the group to start a church. Churches planted by these groups are usually a group that meets in a house. The object is the minimum organization that can perform the required character development and spiritual growth. Buildings, complex ministries and other expensive items are mentioned, but deprecated until the group naturally achieves the size and budget to afford them. The crucial training is how to become a Christian by faith in Jesus Christ and then how to set up a church meet to study the Bible, and perform communion and worshipusually in that order.
A new generation of churches is created, and the growth begins to accelerate geometrically. Frequently, daughter churches are created only a few months after a church's creation. In the fastest-growing Christian movements, the pastoral education is "pipelined", flowing in a just-in-time fashion from the central churches to daughter churches. That is, planting of churches does not wait for the complete training of pastors.
The most crucial part of church planting is selection and training of leadership. Classically, leadership training required an expensive stay at a seminary, a Bible college. Modern church planters deprecate this because it substantially slows the growth of the church without much immediate benefit. Modern mission doctrines replace the seminary with programmed curricula or even less expensive books of discussion questions, and access to real theological books.
Ken Stewart | Covenant College
The materials are usually made available in a major trading language in which most native leaders are likely to be fluent. In some cases, the materials can be adapted for oral use. It turns out that new pastors' practical needs for theology are well addressed by a combination of practical procedures for church planting, discussion in small groups, and motivated Bible-based study from diverse theological texts. As a culture's church's wealth increases, it will naturally form classic seminaries on its own.
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Christian mission - Wikipedia
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