EPICURUS ON FREEDOM AND HAPPINESS
on each action, we reduce all the relevant factors to pleasure and pain, and measure . both to sustain the distinction between these kinds of pleasure, and to connect the . characterizations of the relation of virtue and pleasure. Firstly, virtue. Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek Although Epicureanism is a form of hedonism insofar as it declares pleasure to concept that the absence of pain and fear constitutes the greatest pleasure, . The debate between these two positions was revived by A. A. Long and. If you have imagined all of this, you have imagined Epicurus's “Pleasure Garden . of happiness on a complete change in the social relations that form the fabric of associated with them; False beliefs produce unnecessary pain; among them, .
We will talk in a later post about how Epicurus tries to rid us of these fears, especially the fear of death. But in order to understand the quote above, it is not necessary to go into the details of particular anxieties and fears.
Reading Epicurus: Pleasure and pain (Happiness #22)
It is sufficient to note that if we have such fears, we will not be happy. So far, everyone would agree. But now comes the Epicurean move: He reverses the argument above.
If we do not have such fears, he says, then we are perfectly happy. Epicurus really needs to make this point. Because what he wants, in the end, is to say that we can become happy by reducing our desires.
Epicureanism - Wikipedia
And the happiness that we will achieve by getting rid of our desires is as good as the happiness we would get by fulfilling them see here for a detailed explanation of that thought. Then I would need that chocolate in order to be happy.
But if Epicurus manages to convince us that the perfect happiness is just the absence of pain as he tries abovethen the chocolate would not give me any positive pleasure. If you are not unhappy, then you are, to some degree, katastemic. Epicurus considered that the absence of pain in the soul as the greatest pleasure. This also explains the view that there is only pleasure and pain, as one is defined as the absence of the other. Physical and mental pleasure and pain Epicurus also distinguished between physical and mental pleasure and pain.
Physical pleasure or pain is rooted in the present, as it is experienced physically and viscerally. Eating, drinking and fornicating are three very basic activities that give physical pleasure. You can also get physical pleasure from using the body, such as in many sports. Mental pleasure or pain can also reach forward and backwards in time as we contemplate the past and anticipate the future.
Epicurus (341—271 B.C.E.)
Mental pleasure can come from contemplation, conversation, chess and other stimulating activities. Epicurus considered the greatest destroyer of pleasure to be anxietywhich is future-based anticipated pain, and that the greatest cause of anxiety is the fear of the gods or of death. Thus, if you do not think about the future, you will likely be happy now.
Desire gaps Epicurus spent much time exploring desire and the two desire gaps: Desire-satisfaction gap, which is about pleasure Desire-frustration gap, which is about pain Desire leads to two strategies: These desires are limited desires that are innately present in all humans; it is part of human nature to have them.
These desires are innate to humans, but they do not need to be fulfilled for their happiness or their survival. These desires are neither innate to humans nor required for happiness or health; indeed, they are also limitless and can never be fulfilled. He defined justice as an agreement made by people not to harm each other.
For if the void were infinite and bodies finite, the bodies would not have stayed anywhere but would have been dispersed in their course through the infinite void, not having any supports or counterchecks to send them back on their upward rebound. Again, if the void were finite, the infinity of bodies would not have anywhere to be.
Without the swerve, the atoms would never have interacted with each other, and simply continued to move downwards at the same speed. Every object was continually emitting particles from itself that would then interact with the observer.
For example, when one places a straight oar in the water, it appears bent.
Reading Epicurus: Pleasure and pain (Happiness #22) - Daily Philosophy
The Epicurean would argue that image of the oar, that is the atoms traveling from the oar to the observer's eyes, have been shifted and thus really do arrive at the observer's eyes in the shape of a bent oar. If something is pleasurable, we pursue that thing, and if something is painful, we avoid that thing. Tetrapharmakos Part of Herculaneum Papyrus P. Contains Epicurean tetrapharmakos from Philodemus' Adversus Sophistas.
Tetrapharmakos, or "The four-part cure", is Philodemus of Gadara 's basic guideline as to how to live the happiest possible life, based on the first four of Epicurus ' Principal Doctrines. This poetic doctrine was handed down by an anonymous Epicurean who summed up Epicurus' philosophy on happiness in four simple lines: