Pop Art | Abstract Expressionism vs. Pop Art
Abstract Expressionism • Characteristics of Abstract Expressionist Pop Art- defined as 'making impersonality a style' by using the imagery of. Influence. Because of the huge influence of Abstract Expressionism in postwar New York City, other artists and movements are generally understood in relation to it. The other principal movement of postwar New York was Pop art. Although . Abstract, Abstract Expressionism, and Pop Art. With our topics in techniques and ideas from the Abstract Art movement and . continual search for new relationships between lines and color can be best reflected in his last.
The political climate after World War II did not long tolerate the social protests of these painters. The McCarthy era after World War II was a time of artistic censorship in the United States, but if the subject matter were totally abstract then it would be seen as apolitical, and therefore safe.
Or if the art was political, the message was largely for the insiders. Besides the painters and sculptors of the period the New York School of abstract expressionism also generated a number of supportive poets, including Frank O'Hara and photographers such as Aaron Siskind and Fred McDarrahwhose book The Artist's World in Pictures documented the New York School during the sand filmmakers—notably Robert Frank —as well.
Although the abstract expressionist school spread quickly throughout the United States, the major centers of this style were New York City and the San Francisco Bay area of California. Art critics of the post—World War II era[ edit ] At a certain moment the canvas began to appear to one American painter after another as an arena in which to act. What was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event.
There were also a few artists with a literary background, among them Robert Motherwell and Barnett Newmanwho functioned as critics as well. While New York and the world were yet unfamiliar with the New York avant-garde by the late s, most of the artists who have become household names today had their well-established patron critics: During the s Barnett Newman wrote several articles about the new American painting.
Barnett Newmana late member of the Uptown Groupwrote catalogue forewords and reviews, and by the late s became an exhibiting artist at Betty Parsons Gallery. His first solo show was in Soon after his first exhibition, Barnett Newman remarked in one of the Artists' Sessions at Studio An example is his letter on April 9,"Letter to Sidney Janis: He fights, however, to submit to the philistine world. My struggle against bourgeois society has involved the total rejection of it.
As long-time art critic for the Partisan Review and The Nationhe became an early and literate proponent of abstract expressionism. The well-heeled artist Robert Motherwell joined Greenberg in promoting a style that fit the political climate and the intellectual rebelliousness of the era.
Clement Greenberg proclaimed abstract expressionism and Jackson Pollock in particular as the epitome of aesthetic value. Harold Rosenberg spoke of the transformation of painting into an existential drama in Pollock's work, in which "what was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event".
The gesture on the canvas was a gesture of liberation from value—political, aesthetic, moral. Meyer Schapiro and Leo Steinberg along with Clement Greenberg and Harold Rosenberg were important art historians of the post-war era who voiced support for abstract expressionism.
During the early-to-mid-sixties younger art critics Michael FriedRosalind Kraussand Robert Hughes added considerable insights into the critical dialectic that continues to grow around abstract expressionism. Many of those who didn't flee perished. The post-war period left the capitals of Europe in upheaval, with an urgency to economically and physically rebuild and to politically regroup.
In Paris, formerly the center of European culture and capital of the art world, the climate for art was a disaster, and New York replaced Paris as the new center of the art world. In Europe after the war there was the continuation of SurrealismCubismDadaand the works of Matisse. Also in Europe, Art brut and Lyrical Abstraction or Tachisme the European equivalent to abstract expressionism took hold of the newest generation.
Gorky was an Armenian -born American painter who had a seminal influence on abstract expressionism. He had an extraordinary gift for hitting the nail on the head; remarkable. So I immediately attached myself to him and we became very good friends. Graham's influence on American art during the early s was particularly visible in the work of Arshile GorkyWillem de KooningJackson Pollockand Richard Pousette-Dart among others.
Gorky's contributions to American and world art are difficult to overestimate.
The Impact of Abstract Expressionism
His work as lyrical abstraction      was a "new language. The early work of Hyman Bloom was also influential. Hans Hofmann in particular as teacher, mentor, and artist was both important and influential to the development and success of abstract expressionism in the United States. Pollock and Abstract influences[ edit ] During the late s, Jackson Pollock's radical approach to painting revolutionized the potential for all Contemporary art that followed him. To some extent, Pollock realized that the journey toward making a work of art was as important as the work of art itself.
Like Pablo Picasso 's innovative reinventions of painting and sculpture near the turn of the century via Cubism and constructed sculpture, with influences as disparate as Navaho sand paintingssurrealism, Jungian analysis, and Mexican mural art,  Pollock redefined what it was to produce art. His move away from easel painting and conventionality was a liberating signal to the artists of his era and to all that came after.
Artists realized that Jackson Pollock's process—the placing of unstretched raw canvas on the floor where it could be attacked from all four sides using artist materials and industrial materials; linear skeins of paint dripped and thrown; drawing, staining, brushing; imagery and non-imagery—essentially took art-making beyond any prior boundary. Abstract expressionism in general expanded and developed the definitions and possibilities that artists had available for the creation of new works of art.
The other abstract expressionists followed Pollock's breakthrough with new breakthroughs of their own. The new art movements of the s essentially followed the lead of abstract expressionism and in particular the innovations of Pollock, De Kooning, Rothko, Hofmann, Reinhardt, and Newman. The radical Anti-Formalist movements of the s and s including FluxusNeo-DadaConceptual artand the feminist art movement can be traced to the innovations of abstract expressionism.
Rereadings into abstract art, done by art historians such as Linda Nochlin Griselda Pollock  and Catherine de Zegher  critically shows, however, that pioneer women artists who have produced major innovations in modern art had been ignored by the official accounts of its history, but finally began to achieve long overdue recognition in the wake of the abstract expressionist movement of the s and s.
Abstract expressionism emerged as a major art movement in New York City during the s and thereafter several leading art galleries began to include the abstract expressionists in exhibitions and as regulars in their rosters. Some of those prominent 'uptown' galleries included: Action painting[ edit ] Action painting was a style widespread from the s until the early s, and is closely associated with abstract expressionism some critics have used the terms action painting and abstract expressionism interchangeably.
A comparison is often drawn between the American action painting and the French tachisme. The term was coined by the American critic Harold Rosenberg in  and signaled a major shift in the aesthetic perspective of New York School painters and critics.Painters Painting (1973)
According to Rosenberg the canvas was "an arena in which to act". While abstract expressionists such as Jackson PollockFranz Kline and Willem de Kooning had long been outspoken in their view of a painting as an arena within which to come to terms with the act of creation, earlier critics sympathetic to their cause, like Clement Greenbergfocused on their works' "objectness.
Boon by James Brooks, Tate Gallery Rosenberg's critique shifted the emphasis from the object to the struggle itself, with the finished painting being only the physical manifestation, a kind of residue, of the actual work of art, which was in the act or process of the painting's creation.
This spontaneous activity was the "action" of the painter, through arm and wrist movement, painterly gestures, brushstrokes, thrown paint, splashed, stained, scumbled and dripped. The painter would sometimes let the paint drip onto the canvas, while rhythmically dancing, or even standing in the canvas, sometimes letting the paint fall according to the subconscious mind, thus letting the unconscious part of the psyche assert and express itself.
All this, however, is difficult to explain or interpret because it is a supposed unconscious manifestation of the act of pure creation. Pollock's energetic action paintingswith their "busy" feel, are different both technically and aesthetically, to the violent and grotesque Women series of Willem de Kooning.
Woman V is one of a series of six paintings made by de Kooning between and that depict a three-quarter-length female figure. He began the first of these paintings, Woman I, collection: The Museum of Modern ArtNew York City, in Junerepeatedly changing and painting out the image until January or Februarywhen the painting was abandoned unfinished.
The art historian Meyer Schapiro saw the painting in de Kooning's studio soon afterwards and encouraged the artist to persist. De Kooning's response was to begin three other paintings on the same theme; Woman II, collection: During the summer ofspent at East Hamptonde Kooning further explored the theme through drawings and pastels.
The Impact of Abstract Expressionism (article) | Khan Academy
He may have finished work on Woman I by the end of June, or possibly as late as Novemberand probably the other three women pictures were concluded at much the same time.
Another important artist is Franz Kline. James Brooks' paintings were particularly poetic and highly prescient in relationship to Lyrical Abstraction that became prominent in the late s and the s.
Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles Clyfford StillBarnett NewmanAdolph Gottlieb and the serenely shimmering blocks of color in Mark Rothko 's work which is not what would usually be called expressionist and which Rothko denied was abstractare classified as abstract expressionists, albeit from what Clement Greenberg termed the Color field direction of abstract expressionism.
Use of Appropriation A very common characteristic among Pop artists was the use of appropriation — taking an already existing object or image and incorporating it into their own work of art. Often, Pop artists took the appropriated image and recreated it in a new way to make it their own, such as Tom Wesselmann whose still lifes incorporated hand painting with consumer good imagery and even everyday objects.
Tom Wesselmann, Still Life 20, Wit and Irony Unlike Abstract Expressionists, whose work took on expressive, authentic, transcendent meaning, Pop artists created work that presented anything from witty humor to ironic critique. While Roy Lichtenstein took playful jabs at the Abstract Expressionist gesture, other Pop artists used the impact of consumer good labels and military imagery to make a direct critique on mass consumption or political statements.
Roy Lichtenstein, Compositions II, Confused how a comic strip could be considered art? Some critics were outraged at the time. But Pop art represented a truly defining moment in the world of art history. Emerging in England in the late s as artists of the Independent Group rejected the conservative and outmoded British art establishment, Pop artists embraced imagery of popular culture.
Shortly thereafter, Pop art exploded in America in full, witty color.