Music and language | Mempowered
Research into child development seems to indicate that musical training is the only method proven to improve intellectual, linguistic and. Similarly, there are growing indications of a link between musical rhythmic abilities and linguistic reading skills in young children, but what is. The relationship between music and language is particularly strong in early For another stage, processing of semantics, similarities between music and.
Patel proposes the so-called OPERA hypothesis with which he explains why music is beneficial for many language functions. According to the OPERA hypothesis, when these conditions are met, neural plasticity drives the networks in question to function with higher precision than needed for ordinary speech communication.
While Patel's paper is more an opinion paper that puts musical expertise into a broader context, the seven other reviews more or less emphasize specific aspects of the current literature on music and language.
Milovanov and Tervaniemi underscore the beneficial influence of musical aptitude on the acquisition linguistic skills as for example in acquiring a second language. In their extensive review of the literature, Besson et al.
Psycholinguistics/Language and Music
Shahin article reviews neurophysiological evidence supporting an influence of musical training on speech perception at the sensory level, and the question is discussed whether such transfer could facilitate speech perception in individuals with hearing loss. This review also explains the basic neurophysiological measures used in the neurophysiological studies of speech and music perception.
Schon and Francois present a review in which they focus on a series of electrophysiological studies that investigated speech segmentation and the extraction of linguistic versus musical information.
They demonstrated that musical expertise facilitates the learning of both linguistic and musical structures. A further point is that electrophysiological measures are often more sensitive for identifying music-related differences than behavioral measures.
Taken together, this special issue provides a comprehensive summary of the current knowledge on the tight relationship between music and language functions. Thus, musical training may aid in the prevention, rehabilitation, and remediation of a wide range of language, listening, and learning impairments.
On the other hand, this body of evidence might shed new light on how the human brain uses shared network capabilities to generate and control different functions. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness. Transfer of training between music and speech: Cerebral dominance in musicians and nonmusicians. The effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. Implicit memory in music and language.
Psycholinguistics/Language and Music - Wikiversity
Native experience with a tone language enhances pitch discrimination and the timing of neural responses to pitch change. Effects of practice and experience on the arcuate fasciculus: The influence of task-irrelevant music on language processing: Toward a neural basis of music perception — a review and updated model.
Relating pitch awareness to phonemic awareness in children: The interplay between musical and linguistic aptitudes: Preserved statistical learning of tonal and linguistic material in congenital amusia.
Processing of voiced and unvoiced acoustic stimuli in musicians. Why would musical training benefit the neural encoding of speech? Tone language fluency impairs pitch discrimination. Musical expertise and statistical learning of musical and linguistic structures. Neurophysiological influence of musical training on speech perception.
Can you hear me now? Musical training shapes functional brain networks for selective auditory attention and hearing speech in noise.
Dynamic auditory processing, musical experience and language development. The size of human social groups, he argues cogently, was able to increase to our species' benefit because of the advantages language has over grooming. For example, it's hard to groom more than one at a time, but you can talk to several at once.
Language, music, and emotion I mention this now because he also suggests that both music and language helped humans knit together in social groups, and maybe music was first. We are all familiar with the extraordinary power of music to not only evoke emotion, but also to bind us into a group. Think of your feelings at times of group singing - the singing of the national anthem, singing 'Auld Lang Syne' at New Year's Eve, singing in church, campfire singing, carol singing Dunbar also observes that, while skilled oratory has its place of course, language is fairly inadequate at the emotional level - something we all have occasion to notice when we wish to offer comfort and support to those in emotional pain.
At times like these, we tend to fall back on the tried and true methods of our forebears - touch. So, while language is unrivalled in its ability to convey "the facts", there is a point at which it fails.
At this point, other facilities need to step in. At an individual level, we have touch, and "body language". At the social level, we have music.
Language and music then, may well have developed together, not entirely independently.
Relationship between Music and Language - Oxford Handbooks
More evidence for this comes from recent neurological studies. The neural substrates of language and music Language is a very important and complex function in humans, and unsurprisingly it involves a number of brain regions. The most famous is Broca's area.
Recent research into neurological aspects of music have held some surprises. Imaging studies have revealed that, while the same area the planum temporale was active in all subjects listening to music, in non-musicians it was the right planum temporale that was most active, while in musicians the left side dominated.
The Connection Between Music and Language
The left planum temporale is thought to control language processing. It has been suggested that musicians process music as a language. This left-brain activity was most pronounced in people who had started musical training at an early age.
Moreover, several studies have now demonstrated that there are significant differences in the distribution of gray matter in the brain between professional musicians trained at an early age and non-musicians.
In particular, musicians have an increased volume of gray matter in Broca's area. The extent of this increase appears to depend on the number of years devoted to musical training. There also appears to be a very significant increase in the amount of gray matter in the part of the auditory cortex called the Heschl's gyrus also involved in the categorical perception of speech sounds. An imaging study1 investigating the neural correlates of music processing found that " unexpected musical events" activated the areas of Broca and Wernicke, the superior temporal sulcus, Heschl's gyrus, both planum polare and planum temporale, as well as the anterior superior insular cortices.
The important thing about this is that, while some of those regions were already known to be involved in music processing, the cortical network comprising all these structures has up to now been thought to be domain-specific for language processing.
People are sensitive to acoustic cues used to distinguish both different musicians and different speakers Another study2 has found that people remember music in the same way that they remember speech. Both musicians and non-musicians were found to be equally accurate in distinguishing changes in musical sequences, when those changes were in the length and loudness of certain tones.
This discrimination appeared to also be within the capabilities of ten-month-old babies, arguing that the facility is built into us, and does not require training. These acoustic characteristics are what make two musicians sound different when they are playing the same music, and make two speakers sound different when they are saying the same sentence.
So, if this facility is innate, what do our genes tell us?
- The Relationship between Music and Language
- Music and language