the heart of supervision and how that occurs in relation to the . posed by Bordin (, ) which refers to collaborative goal and task. (1) Discuss a supervisory relationship that you would define as “good” makes you define it in this way? Shared goals and expectations of supervision;. One of the main goals of supervision is to foster supervisees' professional . The supervisory relationship is often defined according to Bordin's.
Clinical supervision in substance abuse treatment most often requires balancing administrative and clinical supervision tasks. Sometimes these roles are complementary and sometimes they conflict. Often the supervisor feels caught between the two roles.
Administrators need to support the integration and differentiation of the roles to promote the efficacy of the clinical supervisor.
Culture and other contextual variables influence the supervision process; supervisors need to continually strive for cultural competence. Supervisors require cultural competence at several levels. Since supervisors are in a position to serve as catalysts for change, they need to develop proficiency in addressing the needs of diverse clients and personnel.
Successful implementation of EBPs requires ongoing supervision. Supervisors ensure that EBPs are successfully integrated into ongoing programmatic activities by training, encouraging, and monitoring counselors. Excellence in clinical supervision should provide greater adherence to the EBP model.
Because State funding agencies now often require substance abuse treatment organizations to provide EBPs, supervision becomes even more important. Supervisors have the responsibility to be gatekeepers for the profession. Supervisors are responsible for maintaining professional standards, recognizing and addressing impairment, and safeguarding the welfare of clients.
More than anyone else in an agency, supervisors can observe counselor behavior and respond promptly to potential problems, including counseling some individuals out of the field because they are ill-suited to the profession. Finally, supervisors also fulfill a gatekeeper role in performance evaluation and in providing formal recommendations to training institutions and credentialing bodies.
Clinical supervision should involve direct observation methods. Direct observation should be the standard in the field because it is one of the most effective ways of building skills, monitoring counselor performance, and ensuring quality care. Supervisors require training in methods of direct observation, and administrators need to provide resources for implementing direct observation.
The supervisory relationship
Although small substance abuse agencies might not have the resources for one-way mirrors or videotaping equipment, other direct observation methods can be employed see the section on methods of observation, pp. Guidelines for New Supervisors Congratulations on your appointment as a supervisor! By now you might be asking yourself a few questions: What have I done? Was this a good career decision? There are many changes ahead.
First, it is important to face that your life has changed. You might experience the loss of friendship of peers. You might feel that you knew what to do as a counselor, but feel totally lost with your new responsibilities see vignette 6 in chapter 2.
You might feel less effective in your new role.
Supervision can be an emotionally draining experience, as you now have to work with more staff-related interpersonal and human resources issues. Before your promotion to clinical supervisor, you might have felt confidence in your clinical skills. Now you might feel unprepared and wonder if you need a training course for your new role.
Although you are a good counselor, you do not necessarily possess all the skills needed to be a good supervisor. Your new role requires a new body of knowledge and different skills, along with the ability to use your clinical skills in a different way. Be confident that you will acquire these skills over time see the Resources section, p. Suggestions for new supervisors: Seek out this information as soon as possible through the human resources department or other resources within the organization.
Ask for a period of 3 months to allow you to learn about your new role. During this period, do not make any changes in policies and procedures but use this time to find your managerial voice and decisionmaking style.
Take time to learn about your supervisees, their career goals, interests, developmental objectives, and perceived strengths. Work to establish a contractual relationship with supervisees, with clear goals and methods of supervision. Learn methods to help staff reduce stress, address competing priorities, resolve staff conflict, and other interpersonal issues in the workplace.
Obtain training in supervisory procedures and methods. Find a mentor, either internal or external to the organization. Shadow a supervisor you respect who can help you learn the ropes of your new job. Seek supervision of your supervision. Problems and Resources As a supervisor, you may encounter a broad array of issues and concerns, ranging from working within a system that does not fully support clinical supervision to working with resistant staff.
They only support billable activities. Therefore, you will need to be practical when beginning your new role as a supervisor: Working With Staff Who Are Resistant to Supervision Some of your supervisees may have been in the field longer than you have and see no need for supervision. Other counselors, having completed their graduate training, do not believe they need further supervision, especially not from a supervisor who might have less formal academic education than they have.
Other resistance might come from ageism, sexism, racism, or classism. Particular to the field of substance abuse treatment may be the tension between those who believe that recovery from substance abuse is necessary for this counseling work and those who do not believe this to be true. In addressing resistance, you must be clear regarding what your supervision program entails and must consistently communicate your goals and expectations to staff.
To resolve defensiveness and engage your supervisees, you must also honor the resistance and acknowledge their concerns. Abandon trying to push the supervisee too far, too fast. Resistance is an expression of ambivalence about change and not a personality defect of the counselor. How are we going to resolve these issues?
Self-disclosure by the supervisor about experiences as a supervisee, when appropriately used, may be helpful in dealing with defensive, anxious, fearful, or resistant staff. Work to establish a healthy, positive supervisory alliance with staff. Because many substance abuse counselors have not been exposed to clinical supervision, you may need to train and orient the staff to the concept and why it is important for your agency.
Things a New Supervisor Should Know Eight truths a beginning supervisor should commit to memory are listed below: The reason for supervision is to ensure quality client care. As stated throughout this TIP, the primary goal of clinical supervision is to protect the welfare of the client and ensure the integrity of clinical services. Supervision is all about the relationship. As in counseling, developing the alliance between the counselor and the supervisor is the key to good supervision.
Culture and ethics influence all supervisory interactions. Contextual factors, culture, race, and ethnicity all affect the nature of the supervisory relationship. Some models of supervision e. Be human and have a sense of humor. As role models, you need to show that everyone makes mistakes and can admit to and learn from these mistakes. Rely first on direct observation of your counselors and give specific feedback. Have and practice a model of counseling and of supervision; have a sense of purpose.
Before you can teach a supervisee knowledge and skills, you must first know the philosophical and theoretical foundations on which you, as a supervisor, stand. Counselors need to know what they are going to learn from you, based on your model of counseling and supervision. Make time to take care of yourself spiritually, emotionally, mentally, and physically. Again, as role models, counselors are watching your behavior. You have a unique position as an advocate for the agency, the counselor, and the client.
As a supervisor, you have a wonderful opportunity to assist in the skill and professional development of your staff, advocating for the best interests of the supervisee, the client, and your organization. Models of Clinical Supervision You may never have thought about your model of supervision. However, it is a fundamental premise of this TIP that you need to work from a defined model of supervision and have a sense of purpose in your oversight role.
Four supervisory orientations seem particularly relevant. They construct and implement strategies to accomplish these goals. The key strategies of competency-based models include applying social learning principles e. Treatment-based supervision models train to a particular theoretical approach to counseling, incorporating EBPs into supervision and seeking fidelity and adaptation to the theoretical model.
Motivational interviewing, cognitive—behavioral therapy, and psychodynamic psychotherapy are three examples. The majority of these models begin with articulating their treatment approach and describing their supervision model, based upon that approach.
Developmental models, such as Stoltenberg and Delworthunderstand that each counselor goes through different stages of development and recognize that movement through these stages is not always linear and can be affected by changes in assignment, setting, and population served. The developmental stages of counselors and supervisors are described in detail below.
Integrated models, including the Blended Model, begin with the style of leadership and articulate a model of treatment, incorporate descriptive dimensions of supervision see belowand address contextual and developmental dimensions into supervision. They address both skill and competency development and affective issues, based on the unique needs of the supervisee and supervisor. Finally, integrated models seek to incorporate EBPs into counseling and supervision.
In all models of supervision, it is helpful to identify culturally or contextually centered models or approaches and find ways of tailoring the models to specific cultural and diversity factors. Issues to consider are: Explicitly addressing diversity of supervisees e. It is important to identify your model of counseling and your beliefs about change, and to articulate a workable approach to supervision that fits the model of counseling you use.
You may find some of the questions below to be relevant to both supervision and counseling. The answers to these questions influence both how you supervise and how the counselors you supervise work: What are your beliefs about how people change in both treatment and clinical supervision? What factors are important in treatment and clinical supervision? What universal principles apply in supervision and counseling and which are unique to clinical supervision?
What conceptual frameworks of counseling do you use for instance, cognitive—behavioral therapy, Step facilitation, psychodynamic, behavioral?
The supervisory relationship
What are the key variables that affect outcomes? Campbell, According to Bernard and Goodyear and Powell and Brodskythe qualities of a good model of clinical supervision are: Precise, clear, and consistent.
Comprehensive, using current scientific and evidence-based practices. Operational and practical, providing specific concepts and practices in clear, useful, and measurable terms.
Outcome-oriented to improve counselor competence; make work manageable; create a sense of mastery and growth for the counselor; and address the needs of the organization, the supervisor, the supervisee, and the client. Finally, it is imperative to recognize that, whatever model you adopt, it needs to be rooted in the learning and developmental needs of the supervisee, the specific needs of the clients they serve, the goals of the agency in which you work, and in the ethical and legal boundaries of practice.
These four variables define the context in which effective supervision can take place. Developmental Stages of Counselors Counselors are at different stages of professional development.
Different supervisory approaches are appropriate for counselors at different stages of development. This schema uses a three-stage approach.
The three stages of development have different characteristics and appropriate supervisory methods. Further application of the IDM to the substance abuse field is needed. For additional information, see Anderson, Counselor Developmental Model It is important to keep in mind several general cautions and principles about counselor development, including: There is a logical sequence to development, although it is not always predictable or rigid; some counselors may have been in the field for years but remain at an early stage of professional development, whereas others may progress quickly through the stages.
Developmental Stages of Supervisors Just as counselors go through stages of development, so do supervisors. The developmental model presented in figure 3 provides a framework to explain why supervisors act as they do, depending on their developmental stage. It would be expected that someone new to supervision would be at a Level 1 as a supervisor.
However, supervisors should be at least at the second or third stage of counselor development. If a newly appointed supervisor is still at Level 1 as a counselor, he or she will have little to offer to more seasoned supervisees. Supervisor Developmental Model Cultural and Contextual Factors Culture is one of the major contextual factors that influence supervisory interactions.
Other contextual variables include race, ethnicity, age, gender, discipline, academic background, religious and spiritual practices, sexual orientation, disability, and recovery versus non-recovery status. The relevant variables in the supervisory relationship occur in the context of the supervisor, supervisee, client, and the setting in which supervision occurs.
More care should be taken to: Identify the competencies necessary for substance abuse counselors to work with diverse individuals and navigate intercultural communities. Identify methods for supervisors to assist counselors in developing these competencies. Provide evaluation criteria for supervisors to determine whether their supervisees have met minimal competency standards for effective and relevant practice.
The Counselor Development domain encourages self-examination of attitudes toward culture and other contextual variables. The Supervisory Alliance domain promotes attention to these variables in the supervisory relationship.
Department of Health and Human Services,p. Culture shapes belief systems, particularly concerning issues related to mental health and substance abuse, as well as the manifestation of symptoms, relational styles, and coping patterns.
There are three levels of cultural consideration for the supervisory process: Holloway emphasizes the cultural issues of the agency, the geographic environment of the organization, and many other contextual factors.
Specifically, there are three important areas in which cultural and contextual factors play a key role in supervision: Becoming culturally competent and able to integrate other contextual variables into supervision is a complex, long-term process. Cross has identified several stages on a continuum of becoming culturally competent see figure 4. Figure 4 Continuum of Cultural Competence Although you may never have had specialized training in multicultural counseling, some of your supervisees may have see Constantine, Regardless, it is your responsibility to help supervisees build on the cultural competence skills they possess as well as to focus on their cultural competence deficits.
It is important to initiate discussion of issues of culture, race, gender, sexual orientation, and the like in supervision to model the kinds of discussion you would like counselors to have with their clients.
If these issues are not addressed in supervision, counselors may come to believe that it is inappropriate to discuss them with clients and have no idea how such dialog might proceed. These discussions prevent misunderstandings with supervisees based on cultural or other factors. Another benefit from these discussions is that counselors will eventually achieve some level of comfort in talking about culture, race, ethnicity, and diversity issues.
Counselors should undergo a similar review as preparation for when they have clients of a culture different from their own. Some questions to keep in mind are: What did you think when the supervisee said his or her culture is X, when yours is Y? How did you feel about this difference?
What did you do in response to this difference? Constantine suggests that supervisors can use the following questions with supervisees: What demographic variables do you use to identify yourself? What struggles and challenges have you faced working with clients who were from different cultures than your own?
Beyond self-examination, supervisors will want continuing education classes, workshops, and conferences that address cultural competence and other contextual factors. Community resources, such as community leaders, elders, and healers can contribute to your understanding of the culture your organization serves. Finally, supervisors and counselors should participate in multicultural activities, such as community events, discussion groups, religious festivals, and other ceremonies.
The supervisory relationship includes an inherent power differential, and it is important to pay attention to this disparity, particularly when the supervisee and the supervisor are from different cultural groups. A potential for the misuse of that power exists at all times but especially when working with supervisees and clients within multicultural contexts.
When the supervisee is from a minority population and the supervisor is from a majority population, the differential can be exaggerated. You will want to prevent institutional discrimination from affecting the quality of supervision. The same is true when the supervisee is gay and the supervisor is heterosexual, or the counselor is non-degreed and the supervisor has an advanced degree, or a female supervisee with a male supervisor, and so on. For some, the relationship is the sine qua non of supervision Freeman, while for others it is a necessary but less-than-defining variable Linehan, Ch.
Thus, while the nature and function of the relationship differ according to several variables, which are discussed below, recent supervision literature usually includes explicit attention to this vital process.
The supervisory relationship is subject to influence by personal characteristics of the participants and by a great many demographic variables.
Several major sources of influence, some static and others dynamic in nature, have been identified and discussed in reviews of the supervision literature. Dynamic sources are those which may exist at only certain stages of the relationship or which are always present but in varying degrees or forms, such as process variables stages: Conflict, the nature and magnitude of which is likely to change across time, can have a significant influence upon the relationship.
Bernard and Goodyear pointed out that conflict occurs in all relationships, and in the supervisory relationship, specifically, some common origins are the power differential between the parties, differences relative to the appropriateness of technique, the amount of direction and praise, and willingness to resolve differences. These influences can be moderated to some extent by mutual respect.
Citing their own and others' research, Ronnestad and Skovholt presented an extensive description of effective supervision of the beginning and advanced graduate students. They concluded that "There is reasonable validity to the perspective that what is good supervision depends on the developmental level of the candidate"p.
Supervisors of beginning students should provide high levels of encouragement, support, feedback, and structure. They explained carefully that the relationship with advanced students is typically more complex because students at this stage tend to vacillate between feeling professionally insecure and professionally competent.
Thus, supervisors of inexperienced counselors serve in a well-defined role as patient teachers; there is an emphasis upon structure and instruction.
As supervisees acquire experience, the need for instruction diminishes, and it is the supervisory relationship which provides a supportive context as advanced workerss assess and reassess their professional competencies and personal qualifications.
Two additional sources of dynamic influence on the supervisory relationship have been identified by Olk and Friedlander as role ambiguity and role conflict Role ambiguity is defined as uncertainty about supervisory expectations and methods of evaluation, while role conflict refers to expectations associated with the role of "student" in contrast with the role of "counselor and colleague". Olk and Friedlander found that role ambiguity was more prevalent across training levels than role conflict, but that the effects diminished as the student gained counseling experience.
Role conflict, however, seems to be more prevalent among those with more experience. These results relative to implications for the relationship as a consequence of learning stage are consistent with those of Ronnestad and Skovholtdescribed above. The body of literature on the subject of counseling supervision, including the supervisory relationship, has grown rapidly during recent years.
Instructional materials for teaching supervision methods and processes are available. Knowledge of the supervisory relationship and competencies in establishing and maintaining effective relationships can be acquired through a combination of didactic, laboratory, and practical experience.
The supervisory relationship is an integral component in virtually all supervision orientations, though important differences exist in quality and function. The definition of an appropriate and effective supervisory relationship varies according to several identifiable fixed static and changeable dynamic variables. The relationship should be structured accordingly with the knowledge and consent of both supervisor and supervisee.