Hyponymy and hypernymy - Wikipedia
There are several different kinds of semantic relations and at least the following ones are relevant to Definition: Each listed hypernym is superordinate to this entry. Each hyponym refers to a specific kind of the thing described by this entry. Cat and rabbit are co-hyponyms of the hypernym animal. The semantic relationship between each of the more specific words (such as daisy. Abstract. Hypernymy relations (those where an hyponym term shares a “isa” relationship with his hypernym) play a key role for many Natural. Language.
For instance, the word screwdriver used in the previous example refers to the tool for turning a screwand not to the drink made with vodka and orange juice.
what is the difference between a hyponym and a hypernym? | MyTutor
A word can be both a hypernym and a hyponym: The hierarchical structure of semantic fields can be mostly seen in hyponymy. They could be observed from top to bottom, where the higher level is more general and the lower level is more specific.
For example, living things will be the highest level followed by plants and animals, and the lowest level may comprise dog, cat and wolf. The second relation is said to be more discriminating and can be classified more specifically under the concept of taxonomy. Co-hyponyms are labelled as such when separate hyponyms share the same hypernym but are not hyponyms of one another, unless they happen to be synonymous.
- Hyponymy and hypernymy
- Part 1: Hearst Patterns for Hypernym Learning
- Hypernyms and Hyponyms: The Genus and Species of Linguistics
Co-hyponyms are often but not always related to one another by the relation of incompatibility. For example, apple, peach and plum are co-hyponyms of fruit. However, an apple is not a peach, which is also not a plum.
Thus, they are incompatible. Nevertheless, co-hyponyms are not necessarily incompatible in all senses. A queen and mother are both hyponyms of woman but there is nothing preventing the queen from being a mother.
Autohyponyms[ edit ] Three varieties of autohyponym A word is an autohyponym if it is used for both a hypernym and its hyponym. Similarly, the verb to drink a beverage is a hypernym for to drink an alcoholic beverage. Horn in a paper, Ambiguity, negation, and the London School of Parsimony. Linguist Ruth Kempson had already observed that if there are hyponyms for one part of a set but not another, the hypernym can complement the existing hyponym by being used for the remaining part.
For example, fingers describe all digits on a hand, but the existence of the word thumb for the first finger means that fingers can also be used for "non-thumb digits on a hand". Since these patterns are already manually constructed, we can use these patterns on a large corpus of unlabeled text for hyponym acquisition.
Homework 8 - Learning Hypernyms
For example, if our corpus only contained the sentences above, we could extract hypo-hypernym pairs such as blues, musical genresrock, musical genresjazz, musical genresspinach, green vegetablespeas, green vegetableskale, green vegetables In this section of the assignment, we will use these patterns to extract hyper-hyponym word pairs from Wikipedia.
The data files are tab-separated with one-pair-per-line.hyponym
Since Wikipedia is too large for efficient processing, we provide you with a pruned version. Each line in the file contains 2 tab-separated columns. The first column contains the tokenized sentence, and the second contains the lemmatized version of the same tokenized sentence.
How to Get Started As you must have noticed, implementing Hearst Patterns requires noun-phrase chunking and then regex pattern matching where these patterns are relevant Hearst patterns. It then uses nltk-regex to find patterns defined in the list self.
To use the method above to perform large-scale extraction on Wikipedia, and evaluation against the provided dataset, we provide the following functions: Use the train and validation data to estimate the performance of different pattern combinations and submit the predictions from the best model on the test data to the leaderboard as the file hearst. The format of this file will the same as the train and validation data.
Hint for post-processing extractions As you might notice in the dataset, the hypernym, hyponym pair contains single, usually lemmatized, tokens. On the other hand, the extractions from our code extracts a lot of multi-word noun phrases. This could negatively affect our performance on the provided dataset.
what is the difference between a hyponym and a hypernym?
Our performance could drastically improve if we post-process our extractions to output only single token extractions. You should be able to use your knowledge about noun-phrases that the head of the noun-phrase usually is the last token and lemmatization to figure out a post-processing methodology that might improve your performance.
In the final report, explain your post-processing methodology, and make clear distinction between change in performance when the extractions were post-processed. Dependency Paths for Hypernym Learning Consider the sentence snippet, … such green vegetables as spinach, peas and kale.
Their visualization tool is called displaCy and can be accessed here: This observation was made in Snow et al. In this paper, the authors use the shortest dependency paths between noun-phrases to extract features and learn a classifier to predict whether a word-pair satisfies the hypo-hypernymy relation. On the contrast, in this part, we will use the shortest dependency paths between noun noun-chunk pairs to predict hypernymy relation in an unsupervised manner.
Simply using the shortest dependency paths as two major issues that can be tackled in the following manner: Two words containing as in between is not a good indicator of the hypernymy relation being expressed and the word such outside the shortest path plays an important role.
The presence of such specific words spinach in the path that do not inform of the hypernymy relation and negatively affect our extraction recall. The word spinach could be replaced with some other word, but the relation between peas and vegetables would still hold.