Object relationship mapping software

Chapter 7. Object-Relational Mapping

object relationship mapping software

software development by avoiding the quagmire described by Neward [2] and such solution as an Object-Relational Mapping (ORM). Each ORM strategy. From the developer standpoint, Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) encompasses .. Coupling is a measure of interconnection among modules in a software. Check out the best Object Relational Mapper (ORM) Tools and Services and get reviews by the developers and engineers who use them in their tech stack.

If this where the case you would have the option to replace the Position. In Figure 11 there is a many-to-many relationship between Employee and Task. In the data schema of Figure 12 I needed to introduce the associative table EmployeeTask to implement a many-to-many relationship the Employee and Task tables.

In relational databases the attributes contained in an associative table are traditionally the combination of the keys in the tables involved in the relationship, in the case EmployeePOID and TaskPOID. The name of an associative table is typically either the combination of the names of the tables that it associates or the name of the association that it implements. In this case I chose EmployeeTask over Assigned. Notice the multiplicities in Figure The rule is that the multiplicities "cross over" once the associative table is introduced, as indicated in Figure A multiplicity of 1 is always introduced on the outside edges of the relationship within the data schema to preserve overall multiplicity of the original relationship.

The original relationship indicated that an employee is assigned to one or more tasks and that a task has zero or more employees assigned to it. In the data schema you see that this is still true even with the associative table in place to maintain the relationship.

List of object-relational mapping software - Wikipedia

Assume that an employee object is in memory and we need a list of all the tasks they have been assigned. The steps that the application would need to go through are: The Select statement is run against the database. The data records representing these tasks are marshaled into Task objects.

object relationship mapping software

Part of this effort includes checking to see if the Task object is already in memory. If it is then we may choose to refresh the object with the new data values this is a concurrency issue.

A similar process would have been followed to read in the employees involved in a given task. To save the relationship, still from the point of view of the Employee object, the steps would be: Add Update statements for any task objects that have changed. Add Insert statements for the Task table for any new tasks that you have created.

List of object-relational mapping software | Revolvy

Add Insert statements for the EmployeeTask table for the new tasks. Add Delete statements for the Task table any tasks that have been deleted. This may not be necessary if the individual object deletions have already occurred. Add Delete statements for the EmployeeTask table for any tasks that have been deleted, a step that may not be needed if the individual deletions have already occurred.

Add Delete statements for the EmployeeTask table for any tasks that are no longer assigned to the employee. Many-to-many relationships are interesting because of the addition of the associative table. Two business classes are being mapped to three data tables to support this relationship, so there is extra work to do as a result. When mapping this to a relational database you need to add an addition column to track this information.

The database schema, also depicted in Figure 1includes the column OrderItem.

object relationship mapping software

ItemSequence to persist this information. Although this mapping seems straightforward on the surface, there are several issues that you need take into consideration.

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These issues become apparent when you consider basic persistence functionality for the aggregate: Read the data in the proper sequence. The scaffolding attribute that implements this relationship must be a collection that enables sequential ordering of references and it must be able to grow as new OrderItems are added to the Order. In Figure 2 you see that a Vector is used, a Java collection class that meets these requirements.

Object-relational mapping

As you read the order and order items into memory the Vector must be filled in the proper sequence. If the values of the OrderItem. ItemSequence column start from 1 and increase by 1 then you can simply use the value of the column as the position to insert order items into the collection.

You have an order with five order items in memory and they have been saved into the database. You now insert a new order item in between the second and third order items, giving you a total of six order items.

With the current data schema of Figure 1 you have to renumber the sequence numbers for every order item that appears after the new order item and then write out all them even though nothing has changed other than the sequence number in the other order items. Because the sequence number is part of the primary key of the OrderItem table this could be problematic if other tables, not shown in Figure 1refer to rows in OrderItem via foreign keys that include ItemSequence.

When do you update sequence numbers after rearranging the order items?

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Import mapping information from the given XML document and add it to the stored system mappings. Export the mapping data for the given classes to an XML file. Each additional argument to the tool should be either the full name of a persistent class, the. If the import action is used, however, then any additional arguments will be interpreted as XML mapping data files. The mapping data generated by the mapping tool is stored in the system mapping factory.

As you will see later in this chapter, you have several mapping factories to choose from. Thus, mapping data might end up stored in the database, in special mapping files, in JDO metadata vendor extensions, or in another format of your choosing.

Using the Mapping Tool There are three primary approaches to object-relational mapping: The mapping tool has actions to facilitate each approach. In the object-to-schema approach to mapping, you concentrate your efforts on your object model, and the mapping tool's refresh action keeps your mappings and schema up-to-date.

The refresh action examines both the existing database schema and any existing mapping information. Classes and fields that are not mapped, or whose mapping information no longer matches the object model or the schema, are automatically given new mappings. The tool also updates the schema as necessary to support these new mappings. The example below shows how to invoke the refresh action on the mapping tool to create or update the mapping information and database schema for the persistent classes listed in package.

Refreshing Mappings and the Relational Schema mappingtool -a refresh package. If the tool does have to replace a bad mapping, it does not modify other still-valid mappings.

object relationship mapping software

For example, if you change the type of a field from int to String, the mapping tool will detect the incompatibility with the old numeric column, add a new string-compatible column to the class' database table, and change the field's mapping data to point to the new column. All other fields will retain their original mappings. To drop mapping data, use the drop action. This action does not affect the schema. Dropping mapping data for unused classes is not strictly necessary, but it might slightly increase performance under some mapping factories.

Dropping Mappings mappingtool -a drop package. We have already seen how to use the reverse mapping tool to generate persistent classes and mapping information from an existing schema. Once you complete the reverse mapping, you may want to tweak the output of the reverse mapping tool. At this point you have both an existing schema and existing mapping information from the reverse mapping tooland you are modifying both by hand.

Thus, you are really using the final, meet-in-the-middle approach to mapping. In the meet-in-the-middle mapping approach, you control both the relational model and the object model. In this scenario, you will find the mapping tool's validate action useful. The validate action verifies that the mapping information for a class matches the class definition and the existing schema.

object relationship mapping software

Validating Mappings mappingtool -a validate package. Unlike the validate action, which throws an exception if the mapping data does not match the existing schema, or the refresh action, which replaces inconsistent mappings, the buildSchema action assumes your mapping data is correct, and modifies the schema to match your mappings.

This lets you modify your mapping data manually, but saves you the hassle of using your database's tools to bring the schema up-to-date. Modifying Default Mappings First, run the mapping tool with a none schema action to generate default mappings without changing the database: You only have to do this once; Kodo will continue to use the modified mappings as long as they remain valid. Finally, build the schema based on your mappings: Reverting Mapping Data mappingtool -a revert package.

It writes the SQL to add tables or columns missing from the current schema to the update. It then writes the SQL to add any missing tables and columns to the current schema to update.