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In approaching the always intriguing question of the relation between poetry .. it "deprives the word of its own vitality, transforming it then in a tumulus-taboo. nature - sheds light on the relationship between Du Bellay and his .. 25 For the full text of this poem (Mellini Sang, etymon)> see Tumulus Henrici secundi, С. Thus the first of these Tumuli, for Jean de Thou, contains poems by twelve e l' Europa (Turin, ) emphasizes the relationship of de Thou, Casaubon, and to .
And we, we must take them on the wing, and let them go. Embalmed flowers are not flowers, immortelles are not flowers; flowers are just a motion, a swift motion, a coloured gesture; that is their loveliness.
And that is love.
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But a gem is different. It lasts so much longer than we do so much much much longer that it seems to last forever. Yet we know it is flowing away as flowers are, and we are, only slower. The wonderful slow flowing of the sapphire!
All flows, and every flow is related to every other flow. Flowers and sapphires and us, diversely streaming.
In the old days, when sapphires were breathed upon and brought forth during the wild orgasms of chaos time was much slower, when the rocks came forth.
It took aeons to make a sapphire, aeons for it to pass away. And a flower it takes a summer. Therefore, they can both coexist as in concrete poetryand the difference in the systems should not disturb this coexistence; all the signs are at the same level. Nadin's remarks only confirm the idea of equivalence of signs proposed by Benveniste.
According to Benveniste, language is the only system whose meaning is articulated around two dimensions, whereas other systems have a unidimensional signification, which can be "either semiotic politeness expressions, 'mudras' and non-semantic; or semantic artistic expressionsand non-semiotic" Pl A "Literary" Genre But then, to what extent can these texts be considered as "literature"?
In what sense can they be "read" as "poetry"? Or, using Carole Ann Taylor's words, "Under what circumstances does a combination of visual and verbal media achieve the status of poetry and under what circumstances does the logic of vision and that of language interfere with each other in ways that cannot convincingly be labeled 'poetic'? But we do have Certain elements available which can help us observe how concrete poetry is located according to some or not according to others within the realm of literature.
These elements include the traditional association of poetry and painting, the genre creators' testimony, and a set of metatexts that identify and define it.
In his outline of the history of concrete poetry, Armando Zarate emphasizes the common origin of poetry and painting: This written word that entered, millennia ago, the magic circle, the sacred, the hieroglyph, is again [in concrete poetry], curiously enough, the word that breaks into pieces, the word that checks itself and comes back to its original nature, devoid of 'thing,' but a living matter and act.
In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, a renewed interest for experimentation in the field joins the old theoretical preoccupations. The practice of making literature into a picture was not entirely new, of course. The tradition began in ancient Greece third century B. The evolution of traditional poetic forms, from more or less fixed rules to a more "free" poetry, alters the condition of poetry itself.
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Nadin observes how art has evolved during this century in such a way that it has acquired a new fundamental characteristic: In this sense, poetic modernism responds to poetry's assimilation of its own mechanisms, and its abandonment of all ornamentation that blocks the access to poetic meaning: This seems to be also the creators' intention, as Augusto de Campos states in "A moeda concreta da fala": It is against its nonfunctionality and its formulization.
It is against appropriation by discourse which makes a formula of it. In the "writing" of concrete poetry there is some kind of "poetic awareness" in the sense that what is being created is more or less consciously taken as poetry and nothing else. The essays and manifestos included in Teoria da Poesia Concreta point toward this direction.
A few quotations will suffice: As we have pointed out, though, concrete poetry seeks precisely to free itself from all subjectivity, shifting the "lyrical" focus, and placing it in the aesthetic side of the process, as it always happens with any kind of message whose dominant function is centered on the message itself. Production and Transmission; Poets and Typographers The fact that the interrelation of systems also affects production techniques puts us in a new problematic situation. Production and transmission of concrete poetry cannot be achieved through conventional methods only.
Photography, engraving, color, graphic design, collage, moving pictures. Many times what we see in anthologies are not the "real" poems, but mere "reproductions" while the originals are shown at exhibitions. It cannot be forgotten that concrete poetry has evolved "along the lines of industrial design and architecture.
Poets are aware of how strong the link between poetry and graphic art is, and how greatly they influence each other, and they want to take advantage of the new possibilities.
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Therefore in concrete poetry the aesthetic qualities of the shape of letters and other graphic signs are consciously used by the poet in order to intensify the meaning of the words.
Hence, the poet ought to be acquainted with typographic techniques, at least in theory. Practice is, of course, a different story, as Solt emphasizes quoting Gomringer: For in the production of this genre, unlike traditional poetry, the intervention of two maybe more if we add performance "experts" is needed.
Poets usually send suggestions to the typographer regarding the treatment they want for their texts. These suggestions are not normally transcribed when poems are printed, but Solt gives some examples of notes that she herself sent to the press accompanying her poems. In one of these notes, she makes clear that the poem "leaf" "requires a graceful serif face so that the hieroglyphic 'f' in subtly bolder type can be seen to fall through the poem. An italic face would overdo it, I feel.
The poem should be placed upper-right on the page to suggest the poems written on Japanese scrolls [Typeface: We see how decisively the transformations in the poetic structure affect the production and transmission of written material. In addition, another quality of concrete texts must be taken into account: Of course, recitation must necessarily undergo some kind of change, too.
In the first place, it seems obvious that very few concrete poems could be recited without losing their true sense.I fell in love with you 💓 Best Romantic Love Poems 💋
The role of music, so extensively praised by the Noigandres group, becomes crucial in the performance of the texts. Pignatari remembers how a few poems, accompanied by Anton Webern's music and "adapted to voice were executed in the Teatro de Arena of Sao Paulo in November of by the 'Ars Nova' musical group.
Therefore the reading of concrete poetry "does not depend, as traditional poetry does, upon a fixed, linear text for its communication" The role not only of the performer or the adapter, but also of the receptor of concrete poetry, becomes fundamental, as explained by Claus Cluver: Due to all the novelties present in the genre, the reader, or let us say the receptor, of concrete poems must make an effort of adjustment at two levels.
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First, readers must adapt their expectations until they find the new "type of meaning," using E. Cluver claims that concrete texts "do not curtail the referential qualities of the verbal material of which they are composed. They communicate primarily their own structure, which is their proper 'content'" RV Or, as we saw earlier, language has lost its second level of articulation.
That is why for the unwarned reader, "the very label 'poem' may arouse many expectations that the text will not fulfill" RV The most widespread proposal on how to read a concrete poem, defended by Cluver, Nadin, and Weaver, tends to the abandonment of what is usually taken as "interpretation," and its substitution by a more useful activity: The concept of perception, outlined here in such a shallow manner, is broadly developed by Mike Weaver, who asserts that "the act of perception itself is the first preoccupation of concrete poetry" CP The emphasis falls on formal values, "on the micro-aesthetic of perception rather than on the macro-aesthetic of attitude," in such a way that "energy is directed towards solving problems of scale, movement, sequential relations, time, stamina, and, above all, the identification of forms" CP All that is asked from the "receptors" new form of "readers" is that they have their capacity of sensory stimulation ready, and just that, since "a capacity for fantasy, or self-stimulation of the notoriously 'literary' kind, is not required.
To participate in the concrete poem means no more no less than paying active attention in perceiving" CP Weaver's opinion, somewhat radical, eliminates the possibility of interpretation as an intellectual exercise. Mihai Nadin, along the same line, allows nevertheless for a certain degree of intellectual activity: Carole Ann Taylor's study offers a remarkable example of what happens, or may happen, when the adjustment does not take place. Taylor's criticism of concrete poetry shows an attitude linked to the traditional concept of interpretation in literature.
Even her treatment of the relation between poetry and painting reminds us of Lessing's ideas: As far as expectation adjustment is concerned, it is noteworthy that Taylor deems "profundity," "duration," and "social function" essential features of poetry. Since concrete poetry does not respond to these prerequisites, it should be ruled out from poetic discourse, for "these techniques abolish sequence by abolishing the internal relations between words that we usually think of as providing the richness and depth of poetry" AP And yet such a process is seen by Augusto de Campos as a waning of the word's strength, since it "deprives the word of its own vitality, transforming it then in a tumulus-taboo, dead cell in a living organism" Mc On the other hand, the structure of concrete poetry, its sometimes ephemeral configuration, its closeness to graphic art, advertising, and mass media techniques, inscribe the genre within the communication process to which the modern consumer is accustomed: In other words, "high speed communication," 45 which by the way justifies and validates the theoretical principles that concrete poets hold.
Finally, a third manifestation of the lack of adjustment takes place in the pragmatic value granted to poetry. Taylor accuses concrete poetry of restricting itself to "celebratory, affirmative values, a pleasure with the tendency to turn away from the real world's pain," and because of that, "such poetry cannot give birth to a sustained, focussed criticism of personal and social malaise, cannot make fine and particularized enough distinctions to shake us out of apathy or - however delightful, however pleasureable - to open our eyes to the connections between our own patness and the suffering of others" AP These words, however, are far from agreeing with Augusto de Campos's opinion on the "social mission" of poetry: This is a mission that takes place in the ethic and aesthetic exigences of true poetry, which prefers running the risk of being unknown rather than being labelled by the inquisitorial patterns of language" Mc The "problems" of concrete poetry do not end here.
What remains to be examined includes, for example, the evolution of the genre how semiotic poetry, where verbal signs have definitely been eliminated, comes from concrete poetryits present state, or the questions generated by a "literary" genre arising within the semiotics of the visual.
All of it, however, would fall outside the scope of these pages, focused only on the subject of genre. In them, this paper has tried to illustrate with the example of concrete poetry some of the many problems that the question of genre may stir up at a theoretical level, and reciprocally, to elucidate, with the help of a few theoretical principles, the comprehension of concrete poetry as a literary genre.
A World View Bloomington, Ind. The Concrete Poem," Word and Image, 2; Antonio Chicharro Chamorro, "Notas para un analisis de 'la poesia concreto-visual,'" in Estudios sobre literatura y arte dedicados al profesor Emilio Orozco Diaz Granada,vol.
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